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What we know? How do we respond?
The Strategic Defence of Humanity?
Part 1 - Climate-Change History in 'Mega' Time' (500 million years)
Part 2 - Climate-Change History in 'Macro' Time' (last 5 million years)
Part 3 - Climate-Change History in 'Micro' Time (last 50 years - boundary zone)
Part 4 - Climate-Change History in 'Nano' Time (5 to 15 years into the future)
Part 5 - "To rouse the living, wake the dead" (My science contribution)
Part 6 - Freshwater and Energy
Part 7 - Culture and Science
To better understand the climate in our time, and to enable us to respond to its imperatives, let's review what we actually know about the climate on Earth in terms of what we have physically measured or photographed, because what we know is amazingly big.
Part 1 - Climate-Change History in 'Mega'-Time
The past 500 million years
The known climate history of the Earth takes us back in time a whopping 500 million years, to near the very beginning of life on our planet. This is possible, because life itself has provided the measurable proxy for the ever-changing climate on Earth.
We know that the climate on Earth has been on a roller-coaster ride between extreme cold and warm climates. We know this, because we have measured the changing historic climate in proxy by measuring the ratio of a rare heavy-oxygen isotope that is found in water. The ratio of it in sea water is climate sensitive.
We have discovered that all water, including in the oceans, contains a minute amounts of these heavy oxygen atoms in its molecular structure.
An oxygen atom can have two extra neutrons attached. This makes it heavy. The heavy oxygen atom makes the water molecules that contain them, likewise heavy.
We have further discovered that the concentration of those heavy water molecules varies on the surface of the oceans, with climate temperatures. This is so, because light water molecules evaporate more readily at cold surface temperatures than the heavy molecules, which increases the density of the heavy molecules on the surface.
Also, the heavy molecules condense back into water more readily, in the clouds, which occurs more strongly in colder climates. The rainout thereby adds to the concentration of heavy molecules on the ocean surface in cold climates .
It has been discovered that the historic ratio of the heavy-water concentration has been preserved for us in the calcite shells of micro organisms that had lived at the surface of the sea at the time.
The organism create the calcite (calcium carbonate (CaCO3) of their shells with a combination of water with carbon dioxide. The ratio of the heavy oxygen atoms in the water is thereby preserved for us in the calcite shells that accumulate on the ocean floor after the organisms die.
By analyzing deep sea sediments for their contained heavy oxygen ratio, it has become possible to physically measure the climate fluctuations that have occurred over the last 500 million years, going back in time almost to the very beginning of life on the Earth.
The result of the measured ratios is plotted here.
What we see is rather amazing. We see surprisingly large fluctuations in the historic record, but we don't see them as random fluctuations, as one might expect. We see a principle reflected in the fluctuations.
We see two long climate cycles evident, super-imposed on each other. One has a short cycle time of roughly 30 million years per cycle, and the other a longer cycle time of between 140 to 150 million years. But what does this mean?
It means that the mainstream theory about the Sun is incorrect. In mainstream theory the Sun is regarded as an internally heated sphere of hydrogen gas that is powered by a process of nuclear fusion at its core, which combines hydrogen into helium. This is a process that cannot vary by the principle involved. On this basis the Sun. is regarded as in invariable constant for all climate considerations, so that climate fluctuations are deemed to be unrelated to the Sun. But this is not physically possible.
The measured climate fluctuations tell us that the Sun is an extremely variable factor, as nothing else can cause these enormous climate extremes.
Nevertheless, many theories exist that envision processes that are not physically possible, which theorize climate changes by factors other than the Sun.
One false theory sees the solar system, and with it the Earth, to be oscillating above and below our galaxy's thin disc of stars, whereby the Earth is deemed to be periodically exposed to stronger cosmic radiation that is deemed to have affected its climate.
Another false theory sees the Sun in an orbit around the galactic center on a path that is crossing the various spiral arms of the galaxy. The theory is that that the solar system is thereby exposed to changing stellar density that is also deemed to vary cosmic radiation.
The problem with this reasoning is that the physical principles don't exist that would make these types of concepts possible.
Electro-dynamic Galaxy and Sun
NASA solved the problem when it made a critical discovery in recent years that points to an actually possible cause for the two long climate cycles in the historic record.
NASA discovered evidence on the galactic scale that reflects known physical principles discovered in laboratory experiments. NASA has thereby discovered the galactic scale cause that is reflected in the climate on Earth in the very long galactic scale timeframe.
NASA's x-ray and gamma-ray explorations discovered the existence of two gigantic plasma structures extending from the center of our galaxy, perpendicular to the galactic disc for 25,000 light years into opposite directions.
The NASA photographed geometry of the plasma phenomenon on the very large galactic scale, matches remarkably well the physical feature discovered in high-energy plasma discharge experiments conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.
The 'photographed' discovery also places our Sun onto a totally different conceptional platform than that of the gas-fusion model of mainstream cosmology, for which no exclusive evidence actually exists.
Seeing the true Sun - the Sun is a Plasma Star
NASA's discovery defines our Sun as a plasma star that is externally powered by its interacting with interstellar plasma streams, which themselves are a part of the galaxy. This platform for the Sun, for which a lot of measured evidence exists, renders our Sun as highly variable, and as responding to changing plasma density conditions in the galaxy.
The NASA discovered feature indicates that our entire galaxy has been originally formed at a node point between extremely long intergalactic plasma streams.
Since each of the two plasma streams has its own resonance characteristic, which act together in a dynamic system that powers the galaxy, their combined resonances are reflected throughout the galaxy. The fluctuating plasma density, is of course, also reflected on Earth, as the galactic plasma density directly affects the operating intensity of our Sun.
One of the potential plasma connections is with the nearby Andromeda galaxy. It gives us the 30 million years cycle. The plasma stream to the more distant galaxy, the M83 galaxy, gives us the longer, almost 150 million years, cycle.
What actual proof do we have in direct physical measurements, that our galaxy is electrically powered, and therefore is electrically organized?
We have some well-known proof for this. The proof lies in the observed motions of stars.
It is a widely believed dogma that the stars in a galaxy orbit gravitationally around the galactic center - which is actually, physically impossible.
The measured speed of the stellar motion disprove this theorized possibility.
According to the laws of orbital mechanics, discovered by Johannes Kepler in the 1600s, the distant planets orbit at a dramatically lower velocity that matches the weak gravity, as gravity diminishes with the square of the distance.
The motion of stars, however, do not follow the physically necessary distance, gravity, and velocity relationship that enable orbital systems to function. Instead the motions of stars accords with electro-magnetic principles.
By the electromagnetic principles, the entire galaxy rotates as one unit, in a similar manner as a homo-polar electric motor rotates. The measured motions of the stars matches the typical effects well, of electrically motivated motion that are widely applied in technology.
Since the measured stellar motions matches the physics of electromagnetic principles, the physical measurements stand as proof that the galactic system and everything within it is electrodynamically organized and powered by streams of electric plasma particles.
The principle of the plasma galaxy was already recognized decades ago by Hannes Alfven, the 1970 Nobel laureate for his related pioneering work in magnetohydrodynamics.
While we have no measurements are available as to the origin of the cosmic plasma streams that power the the galaxies and everything within them, which researchers believe span all space, their existence may be traced to a specific quality of the universe itself,
which the American theoretical physicist David Bohm termed "the implicate and explicate order."
David Bohm, whom Albert Einstein is reported to referred to as his successor, sees cosmic space not as an empty void, but as a sea of latent energy
that becomes explicate to some degree like ripples on a surface of water.
The plasma particles which pervade space, which are 100,000 times smaller than the smallest atom, may be a continuously-ongoing explicate phenomenon of the cosmic universe. No Big Bang origin theory is needed here.
This means that what we see reflected in the Earth's long-term climate record, which affects us extremely deeply, has a very distant origin
in the deep intergalactic realm and in the resonance effects of the plasma streams that form there and are maintained there.
The recognition of the electrodynamic nature of the galaxies, the solar systems within them, all the way to the planetary systems, is critical as a basis for understanding the Earth's climate dynamics.
This is so, because the cosmic dynamics and the solar-system dynamics, extend all the way to the Earth climate dynamics, which are functionally linked by the basic nature of the universe and its principles that are expressed everywhere and on every scale.
We cannot afford to ignore the dynamic nature of the Universe that we see reflected in all the physical measurements that were made, because our very existence ultimately depends on us responding intelligently to the dynamics of the universe as we progress towards a new round of the Ice Age conditions again, which have been the norm for the last few million years, but which no one has historically experienced or can even imagine.
It is not possible to understand the dynamics of the ice ages, especially the gigantic historic climate fluctuations that got us into the present ice age epoch, on any other basis than the context of plasma electrodynamics that the universe is built on.
We are currently in the midst of a deep glaciation epoch, because the two very long historic climate cycles that have been measured, combine at their low point. The result is, that the climate background for the Earth is now at the coldest level it has been in 440 million years.
This is so, because the plasma density in the galaxy is present at its weakest state, which has dramatic effects on the operation of our Sun.
In historic terms, we are presently at the bottom end of a long diminishing slope of cosmic weakening that began 100 million years ago. It would be surprising if the present extreme galactic weakness was not reflected in the climate on Earth.
In order to get a feeling of how big the climate collapse was that occurred over those 100 million years of the big down-slope, lets focus only on the last 65 million years, in a side by side comparison, because it was in this later timeframe that Antarctica froze up, then thawed out again, and froze up once more.
If one considers that these momentous effects occurred within a narrow region of the 100-million-year down slope, it becomes evident that we are looking at gigantic climate transitions on the long historic timescale, which in their magnitude far exceed the effects that changing cosmic-ray flux could possibly have on the Earth's climate. This means that only a plasma Sun that responds to changing electrodynamic conditions in the galaxy, is able to produce the near miraculous climate fluctuations that have been measured.
The measurements put the Plasma Sun squarely onto the table, as no other cause is able to generate the measured effects.
The Plasma-Sun Principle
The Plasma Sun is a large sphere of plasma that is electrically active and responds in a totally different manner to the force of gravity.
Plasma is the name for electrically charged particles, named electrons and protons, existing in unbound form. They interact by the electric force. Electrons are attracted to the protons by this force, but before they can latch onto each other the electron is repelled at close distance, only to be attracted anew in an endless dance. The swarming of the electrons also keeps the protons isolated from each other, which normally repel one another by the same electric force.
However, when a plasma sphere is large, gravity comes into play. It has the effect that the swarming electrons, which are a thousand times lighter than the protons, tend to migrate away from the center of gravity to the surface where they form a dense, electron-rich layer.
The migration leaves the protons at the center less shielded from each other, which enables them to repel each other more strongly.
The result becomes a very large sphere of plasma with little density at its core, and low overall mass density, but with an extremely dense, and electron-rich surface. That's what interstellar plasma streams interact with. These electrodynamics principles create a type of geometry that enables large stars to exist, with a large surface area. It creates stars that could not exist as gas spheres. Gas spheres are limited in size by the maximum tolerable gravitational compression before such a gas sphere explodes in nuclear fission. This built-in limit is one of the reasons why our Sun cannot possibly be a gas sphere.
Also our Sun is a thousand times too light to be a gas sphere of its size. The comparison of its mass density with that of the big gas planets, makes this rather plain. In the comparison, Jupiter, which has twice the volume of Saturn, has twice the mass density, because of gravitational compression, while the Sun, that has a thousand times greater volume, has roughly the same mass density as Jupiter. The Sun's low mass density is only possible by the Sun being a plasma star that is a largely empty shell.
The low solar mass density proves the gas-compression hydrogen-fusion model for our Sun to be a myth, as do the sunspots.
When we look through the umbra of sunspots, we see the Sun being dark inside. If the Sun was internally energized, the sunspots would be bright, not dark. They are dark, not because mythical dark energy blocks the light from within. They are dark, because there is nothing behind the sunspots, but a largely empty shell of plasma.
The gas-compression nuclear-fusion model is powerfully disproved by some of the big stars that can't possibly exist under this model.
The giant star UY Scuti, for example, is measured to be 1700 times larger than our Sun and to contain ten times its mass. This is not possible under the gas compression fusion model. This star has its 10 solar masses spread out across the star's 5-billion-times larger volume. As one researcher puts it, this star is so thinly spread that it is practically a vacuum.
The giant star that is practically a vacuum, which should not exist under the gas-compression-fusion model, does indeed exist. It outshines our Sun 340,000-fold with is mere 10 solar masses.
As a plasma-star, which doesn't produce its own energy, but merely acts as a type of catalytic converter of the plasma flowing into it, the impossible luminance of the UY Scuti star is totally possible. The great luminance is possible, because a plasma star, like our Sun, doesn't create the energy it radiates. It merely converts it into a different form. It reflects back what flows into it.
At the surface of a plasma star, by it interaction with interstellar plasma that surrounds it, all known atomic elements are synthesized. These created elements, acting together, emit the rich spectrum of sunlight that we see.
The surface of the Sun is a sea of reactions cells where all known atomic elements are synthesized, each of which has its own light emission spectrum. The atomic synthesis can be theorized to be caused by the magnetic compression of flowing plasma into dense concentrations where they naturally combine into atomic structures, which, by this process become electrically neutral and flow away with the solar wind. The atomic synthesis in the fusion cells creates the sink effect that keeps the plasma streams flowing into a sun and not pile up there.
The resulting rich spectrum in sunlight, emitted by a wide range of atomic structures, makes it rather plain that our Sun cannot be anything other than a plasma star. An internally heated sphere of hydrogen gas would not be able to generate the sunlight that we see.
The Sun's light spectrum would be rather meagre if the Sun was a gas star, as meagre as the emission spectrum of hydrogen gas.
The richly colorful world that we live in under the Sun, is a part of the proof that our Sun is a plasma star. And since the plasma fusion process is necessarily externally powered, the sunlight also reminds us scientifically that our Sun is deeply affected by the changing plasma density in interstellar plasma streams, which are affected by the prevailing plasma density in the galaxy, which in turn is affected by plasma-resonance in intergalactic plasma streams.
That's how Antarctica froze up, roughly 30 million years ago, when the Sun became 'colder', and then thawed out again when the Sun became 'hotter', after which Antarctica froze up once more 12 million years ago as the Sun 'cooled down' again as it had to when the galactic plasma density diminished.
Our Sun, being a plasma star, reflects as a matter of principle, the changing pattern of the galactic plasma density.
Antarctica has remained frozen as the solar activity continued to diminish on the weakening slope of the gigantic galactic climate change that is expressed in galactic plasma density, and correspondingly in the climate on Earth.
Dynamics of the Pleistocene Epoch The epoch of the modern Ice Ages, ongoing.
If we expand the last 5 million years still further, as it is shown in the middle of this graph, we see the climate beginning to fluctuate as it was getting still colder, in intervals of 41,000 years. With the start of the fluctuations, 2.5 million years ago, the most recent epoch of the ice age began, named the Pleistocene Epoch.
The start of the Pleistocene created a new phase shift for the climate on Earth. With the renewed glaciation on Earth, everything changed. Glaciation has a big effect on all life, especially during the harsher time, when around a million years ago the glaciation endured longer, with the intervals thereby becoming longer in duration.
That's what we see in the plot to the right, where we see the last 500,000 years expanded again.
We see the same large-spike climate oscillations also reflected in the ice core samples of Antarctica, a sequence of glacial and interglacial periods.
The Pleistocene epoch is an epoch of a type of 'macro' climate, in historic terms. While the Pleistocene is minuscule in comparison with the 'mega' fluctuations in Phanerozoic climate history, the Pleistocene climate is of a type that affects us hugely, because the current climate is functionally an extension of it, for the simple reason that the Pleistocene Ice Age cycles have not ended.
We call the current warm period, the Holocene epoch, a kind of holiday from the Pleistocene.
The Pleistocene Ice Age epoch will continue on for several more million years, after the Holocene interglacial ends and many more ice age cycles follow.