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** Paradox of Climate Change
Our perception of the climate dynamics is presently as paradoxical as that of the sunlight based on a false theory.
The climate on Earth has been fluctuating throughout recorded history, while to the best of our knowledge the intensity of the radiated energy from the Sun had remained fairly constant, within the range of a fraction of a percent. That's a paradox, right?
While the Sun's radiated energy does not change, we have seen wet periods and dry periods, warm periods and cold periods.. We have seen dramatic changes.
We have seen the medieval warm period collapsing into the space of a few hundred years, into the devastating Little Ice Age.
In the 1600s, the Earth became gripped with deep cold periods for a couple of centuries that decimated agriculture. Rivers and canals in Europe froze over and became skating rinks.
How was this possible? Did the Sun become colder? That's hardly possible. The measured evidence that we have on hand seems to preclude this possibility. Nevertheless, the Sun had evidently caused this massive climate change, as the Sun creates the climate on Earth in the first place. The Earth would be a frozen rock at absolute zero in temperature, if it wasn't for the Sun.
The energy flowing from the Sun to the Earth amounts to a whopping 1365 Watts per square meters. The Earth is showered with this energy 24 hours a day, constantly, with only minute fluctuations of a tenth of a percent occurring over the Sun's 11 years cycles, termed the solar cycles?
The solar cycles are most widely known for their cyclical variances in the number and the size of sunspots that occur. The sunspot number, which is a composite index, can reach to several hundred at the peak of the cycle and fall to zero during the minimum period of the cycle when at times no sunspots occur at all.
It has been recognized that these long-term cycles of the Sun, spanning 11 years on average, affect the climate on Earth, and with it affect agriculture to the point of affecting commodity prices.
We ha e come to recognize from historic records that the Sun did change in a subtle way during the Little Ice Age and is now changing even more. Very few of the presently familiar sunspots were observed during the Little Ice Age. And in the middle of it, for several decades, no sunspots had occurred at all.
But how is it possible that the climate on Earth is so dramatically affected by the sunspot variations, as in the Little Ice Age, when the radiated solar energy varies only by a tenth of a percent over the span of the solar cycles?
In finding an answer, the technical capabilities of the space age has come to our aid. When we look at the Sun from the surface of the Earth with telescopes, through a dark glass to protect our eyes, we see only the portion of the spectrum of the lightshow around the Sun. In the visible light band, the Sun appears to us as a bright, featureless disk, except for those dark sunspots, if there are any.
The sunspots that we observe are essentially holes ripped into the photosphere, typically by overload explosions. Big ones can result in solar mass ejections. By looking through the umbra of the sunspots left behind, we see that the Sun is dark inside. This tells us that the energy that is radiated from the Sun, does not come from within the Sun, but from without it. Simply put, the solar energy is catalyzed by the Sun, in plasma-fusion reactions on its surface, as a by-product. The fusion process releases the radiant energy of the wide spectrum of sunlight. Overload conditions can have explosive consequences.
We came to recognize as our science expanded in some fields, that the spectrum of the radiated electromagnetic energy that is emitted by the Sun as light, is far wider than the narrow band of the visible light spectrum. It has been recognized that the Sun emits high-energy ultraviolet light that is of shorter wavelengths than what the eye can recognize. It has also been recognized that the Sun emits infrared light that is of longer wavelengths than what the eye can detect.
We have come to recognize at light itself, is physically made up of streams of photons that are understood in physics as discrete packets of energy of different sizes, which we recognize as different colors. We have further recognized that the size corresponds inversely with the amount of energy contained within a packet, which holds it together. The smaller the size is, the greater is the energy it contains.
When we see light with our eyes, we see streams of packets, packets that we call photons. The streaming packets create waves of energy that have different wavelengths. The different wavelengths appear to our eyes and mind as different colors.
In the visible spectrum, the wave lengths range from about 400 nanometres (nm) for violet light, to about 700 nm for red light. All other electromagnetic waves, those outside the visible range, can however be detected technologically. This is best done outside the Earths atmosphere, from satellites in space.
From satellites we can look at the Sun more clearly, even in x-ray light where the wavelengths are as short as just 1 nm.
When we look at the Sun in x-ray light, an entirely different Sun comes into view. The Sun appears surrounded by a fog of x-ray light, and swirls of features with bright and dark areas on its surface. The intensity of the x-ray light that we see here, reflects levels of high-energy interaction of plasma particles.
When the path of a fast-moving electron is deflected by the electric attraction of it by a proton, the energy that is not deflected is split off in the form of a photon. The process is called bremstrahlung.
The energy level in plasma on the surface of the Sun and surrounding it, is so great, that a lot of x-rays are generated up to extreme distances with numerous types of features becoming visible according to local conditions. Also we see some rather astonishing results when the Sun is observed in x-ray light over long periods.
When the Japanese spacecraft Yohkoh had observed the Sun in x-ray light for a span of 10 years from 1991 to 2001, it was discovered that the overall intensity of the x-ray emissions varied dramatically over time in accord with the dynamics of the solar cycle. It varied immensely, by a factor of close to 100. How is this possible when the energy output of the Sun itself does not vary?
In this same timeframe a joint project was launched with international cooperation between the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA. A satellite was deployed, termed the "Solar and Heliospheric Observatory" or SOHO for short. The SOHO satellite looked at the slightly longer wavelengths of light than x-rays. It looked entirely at the Extreme UV band. In this band too, the same patterns of dramatic fluctuations of the light intensity in the corona around the Sun was recognized, as was recorded by Yohkoh, and this too, occurred again in accord with the progression of the solar cycles. Only the intensity variation was less, probably merely 20-fold.
An answer to this puzzle comes to light when one looks at all of SOHO's 4 different light bands together. It becomes apparent that in the mid-range of this spectrum, in the 28 nanometer image, some parts of the Sun occasionally appear darker and sometimes appear void altogether.
The resulting image that we see here tells us a highly significant story. We know from overall measurements that the Sun's radiated energy-level remains almost always constant within a fraction of a percent. This means that the dramatic difference that we see displayed by the satellite, reflects only peripheral differences in the surrounding solar environment, called the corona. We see the corona getting weaker so that the radiation from the Sun below, causes fewer photons to be emitted.
When the plasma is dense, the interaction of atomic elements with the solar winds cause greater amounts of photons to be emitted from the electron shells of the atomic elements that the plasma encounters in the solar wind. In contrast, when the plasma surrounding the Sun is thin, less interaction happens, or none at all. This means that the areas of lesser density can be termed coronal holes. It has been observed that the changing plasma-density around the Sun, that becomes apparent as plasma density-holes in the corona, has the potential to dramatically affect the climate on Earth.
The reason is, that when 'holes' develop in the corona, a larger volume of solar cosmic-ray flux escapes from the Sun, than would normally escape. This has big effects in the climate, even while the Sun's radiated energy remains the same.
Oh yes, our Sun does emit cosmic rays. Cosmic rays are not streams of light, but are single events of extremely fast moving electrons and protons with velocities sometimes near the speed of light. On our nearby Sun, large volumes of cosmic-ray emissions occur as a by-product of the plasma fusion that synthesizes atomic elements on the surface of the Sun. With the cosmic rays being emitted from the surface of the Sun, nothing much stands in their way to the Earth, except the plasma corona that surrounds the Sun. When the corona develops holes, larger cosmic-ray showers can get to us.
Of course the solar cosmic-ray flux is far-less energetic than the galactic cosmic-ray flux. However, the solar cosmic-ray flux is vastly more numerous. Still, while being less energetic, the solar cosmic rays do increase the ionization of water vapor in the atmosphere. The increased ionization that enhances cloud forming, does dramatically affect our climate.
It has been experimentally demonstrated in principle, by injecting artificial cosmic-rays into a test chamber at the CERN lab in Europe, that cosmic-ray particles dramatically increase aerosol nucleation that is critical for the cloud forming processes.
In the experiment illustrated here, the measured increase in nucleation went right off the chart when the artificial cosmic rays were turned on.
That floods of solar cosmic rays can cause floods of rain on Earth on a continental scale was demonstrated in May 2015 when wide-spread flash floods occurred from Texas to Canada in areas that haven't seen a drop of rain for years. It has been noted that this amazing event coincided with the forming of major coronal holes on the Sun.
Typically, stronger solar cosmic-ray flux increases cloudiness over large regions, and with it affects the climate on Earth. The white tops of clouds reflect a portion of the incoming solar energy back into space. The resulting loss in solar energy for the Earth, is causing climates to become colder, even while the Sun's energy output remains the same. The cooling happens typically at the minimum portion of the solar cycles. The Little Ice Age in the 1600s evidently resulted from this type of effect when the minimum portion extended for almost three centuries..
The Little Ice Age was evidently, indirectly caused by the Sun when the Sun featured a weaker plasma corona that allowed increased solar cosmic-ray flux to reach the Earth and increase cloudiness. The cause for very-large-scale climate effects can be as simple as that.
The causative climate factor on the Earth, is by this clearly recognizable evidence, the fluctuating plasma density in the Sun's corona, and its gradual diminishing. The fluctuation causes solar cosmic-ray fluctuation, and with it, it affects the cloudiness on Earth that varies the portion of the incoming solar energy that is reflected back into space, which becomes lost to us thereby.
This means that the key to the climate dynamics lies on the surface of the Sun, in the plasma-fusion reactions where a large volume of solar cosmic-ray flux is generated that affects the cloud forming process on Earth.
Solar Cosmic-Ray flux cannot originate inside of a sun. Cosmic rays are totally blocked by a few hundred meters of water. This total blocking, for example, is utilized at The Lake Baikal Deep Underwater Neutrino Telescope, that has been placed into a deep lake so that cosmic rays can't interfere with the instrument's detection of neutrinos.
The point is, that if a few hundred feet of water can block cosmic rays completely, none would penetrate the half-a-million kilometers from the core of a hydrogen Sun, that would have most of its gas densely compacted by gravity many times denser than the density of water. The existence of large volumes of solar cosmic-ray flux impacting the Earth provides another absolute proof that the widely accepted model for the Sun is fundamentally false, as it is rendered impossible by the evidence at hand. Solar cosmic rays are as impossible under the currently cherished hydrogen-sun-theory, as is the white white sunlight with its full spectrum of colors that everyone sees, that under the old Sun-theory should not be possible.
The bottom line is, that the great, long-term climate changes in recent history, that we have evidence of, such as the Medieval Warming followed by the Little Ice Age, stand as proof that the widely accepted theory of the hydrogen Sun is utterly false, as these climate changes would be impossible under this theory.