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Electric Nuclear Fusion Sun: Creator of Worlds
We have only one Sun in the solar system, but we have two divergent theories about what the Sun is.
One theory sees the Sun as an internally powered nuclear fusion star. The other theory regards the Sun as being electrically powered at its surface, like a giant catalytic energy converter.
So what is the answer?
The answer is that both theories are incomplete. Both theories are too simplistic and thereby include concepts that are not physically possible, especially when political imperatives require the impossible to be true.
The internal nuclear-fusion-sun theory assumes our Sun to be a giant sphere of mainly hydrogen gas.
The core of the Sun is deemed to extend from its center to about 25% of its radius. This is where 99% of its power is deemed to be generated by a process of nuclear fusion.
The energy that is deemed to be created by the fusion of hydrogen into helium, is not explosive in nature, but is deemed to be the accumulative effect of a number of fringe events that are generated in the atomic restructuring.
The fusion-sun model is based on the conversion of hydrogen atoms into helium atoms by the process of nuclear fusion. According to the internal fusion theory, the fusion chain ends at the alpha stage and progresses no further. A part of the energy is deemed to be derived from the conversion of a proton into a neutron, and from the further fusion of the resulting atomic structures into a helium-3 atom, and the fusion of helium-3 in a process that fissions off a proton. The complex process is called the P-P fusion chain.
The theory, however, incorporates a number of critical problems that put its validity into doubt. One problem is that it fails to account for the required energy input that is consumed in the fusion process. Nuclear fusion that binds plasma into atoms, and atoms into larger atoms, is an energy consuming process. The theory of the fusion-powered sun fails to consider that helium-3 doesn't fuse well. In experiments conducted, it took a million times greater energy as input to force helium-3 atoms to fuse, because of their high ratio of protons to neutrons, then the process gave back. In comparison, the fusion of helium into carbon, oxygen, and other heavy elements, which the theory excludes, requires much less energy to accomplish than the fusion of helium-3. Thus the numbers simply don't add up.
That the assumed numbers don't add up well is somewhat admitted. It is said that the energy created by the solar fusions, is actually minuscule. The energy density produced by nuclear fusion is deemed to be equal to the energy emission of the human body at rest, which isn't large. However, given the immense volume of the Sun, the energy that is deemed to be produced by the weak fusion process, is nevertheless deemed to be sufficient to heat the surface of the Sun to its current temperature of 5,870 degrees Kelvin. The energy is deemed to be brought to the surface by means of an extremely slow convection process with a transit time from the center to the surface of roughly 30 million years.
Furthermore, for the internal fusion model to work, the Sun is assumed to be a ball of mainly hydrogen gas. Hydrogen is deemed to be its fuel. And here too, the model breaks down.
It is not possible for a body of the size of our Sun to exist as a sphere of hydrogen gas. The gravity that would be generated by a sphere of a hydrogen gas of the size of the Sun would be so great that it would compress the hydrogen atoms so intensely that its atomic structure would collapse. The Sun would literally collapse into itself. It would never be formed The collapse is deemed to be avoided by an assumed internal gas pressure, caused by thermal expansion, resulting from the nuclear fusion reaction. Since this is not really possible either, it is assumed that the collapse is prevented by a theorized principle called, electron degeneracy, which theoretically prevents the total collapse of the Sun from a point on.
The obvious answer to this paradoxical confusion that builds on impossible scenarios, is that the Sun is not atomic in nature at all, so that gas dynamics theories would apply, but that the Sun is instead a sphere of plasma that is devoid of atomic structures altogether. Plasma is less dense than atomic gas. Plasma particles repel each other by the electric force. In comparison, atoms, which are formed to be electrically neutral, can be compressed into far smaller spaces than electric repulsion would allow. A gas sphere has therefore a considerably denser mass than a plasma sphere.
That the Sun is indeed a sphere of plasma, rather than a sphere of atomic gases, is evident when one compares the mass-density of the Sun with the mass-density of the giant gas planets of the solar system.
Let's look at Saturn and Jupiter for example. Saturn is 763 times larger in volume than the Earth, but being a gas planet, it has a low average mass-density of only 12.9% of the density of the Earth.
Jupiter, in comparison, is twice as large in volume as Saturn. Its correspondingly larger gravity compresses its gas more intensely, so that Jupiter has nearly double the average mass-density of Saturn, or 24% of the mass-density of the Earth.
Now let's extend this established ratio to the Sun, which has a 1000 times greater volume than Jupiter. Here the surprise begins. The Sun, which should have a thousand times greater density too, shows no increased density at all. It has nearly the same average mass-density that Jupiter has - or a mere 25.5% of that of the Earth. If the Sun was a gas sphere like Jupiter, but 1000 times larger in volume, then its mass-density would be at least a 1000 times greater too, than that of Jupiter or something close to it. This isn't the case. The resulting gigantic difference between what we should see, but don't see, cannot be the result of thermal gas expansion.
These mass-density comparisons prove that the Sun cannot be an atomic gas star, but has to be something totally different, which renders the Sun a plasma star instead. The mutual repulsion of particles in plasma, by the electric force which is 36 orders of magnitude stronger than gravity, enables radically greater mass separation than thermal expansion ever could. Also, since plasma has no structure, it is not affected by the crushing forces of gravity, except to produce gradients in plasma density.
Isn't this what we see in the sunspots?
When we look through the umbra of the sunspots, we see below the photosphere a great void that is pervaded with plasma particles that are 100,000 times smaller than a hydrogen atom. Thus, when we look through the umbra, inside the Sun, we see essentially empty space.
The space that we see is dark. We are not seeing a super-heated gas sphere below the shiny surface, nor do we see the super-heated core inside the Sun that the internal fusion theory tells us we should expect to see as we look through the umbra. Instead we see nothing. This is so, because we are looking at essentially nothing. There is essentially nothing there. All the big energetic actions that make the sun a brilliant star occur at the Sun's surface where the Sun acts like a catalytic energy converter at its photosphere where electric charge separation occurs that forms a double-layer electric sheath which supports cross-flow action between the separating barrier, and in the process supports electrically powered nuclear fusion. And this fusion process is not ending at the helium-fusion stage, but extends across the entire range of elements that exist, all the way up to Uranium.
By looking through the umbra of the sunspots, the Sun reveals itself to us as an electric arc-lamp in the sky that 'smokes' with atomic elements, which stays lit for as long as the electric currents are flowing into it, but which becomes inactive when the currents diminish below a cut-off threshold. That's when the ice ages begin. Fortunately the sun does not remain inactive throughout the long glaciation period. Ice core records indicate that the Sun becomes active periodically for a short time at roughly 1,500-year intervals, which is evident by the enormously large temperature oscillations that have occurred during the last Ice Age that we have evidence of preserved in the Greenland Ice Sheet.
If the Sun is regarded to be a nuclear fusion furnace, then the enormous climate fluctuations that we see expressed in the ice core samples of Greenland, from the time of the last Ice Age cannot be explained. They defy the fusion-sun theory with its 30-million year energy transition from the core to the surface.
On the other hand, if the Sun is regarded as being electrically powered by dense plasma focused onto its surface by electromagnetic primer fields, as in the case of the nebula shown here, then the Sun has the principles incorporated for it to go inactive extremely quickly in times when the primer fields break down.
On this basis all the known ice age phenomena are readily explained.
How the two questions are answered, as to what our sun is - electric of fusion powered - determines our response to the presently changing world.
If we go with the internal fusion-sun theory, then we will make no preparations for a rapid Ice Age beginning. In this case, if it turns out that we have guessed incorrectly, we will all perish as the Ice Age begins with the world being unprepared for it.
On the other hand, if we err on the side of caution and create a new renaissance in the world in preparation for meeting the ice age challenge, we would end up living in a vastly improved world, regardless of whether the ice age will materialize or not. In this case nothing would be lost, and a brighter world would be gained.
All this means that the direction that we need to take, is already clearly defined.
Of course, in order to make the proper preparation for the transformation of the world when the Sun goes inactive and the Next Ice Age begins, a clearer distinction between the internal fusion-Sun theory, and the electric Sun theory, is required, based on readily available evidence.
We need a clarity in scientific understanding that defines unmistakably what is true about the solar dynamics, without having to resort to theories that set aside the known laws of physics as we have it in the internal fusion-sun theory. In the internal fusion-sun theory, for example, the core of the Sun' is deemed to have a temperature of 15.7 million Kelvin and a mass-density in the core that exceeds 150 times the density of liquid water. By this setting aside the known laws of physics the credibility of the internal-fusion sun theory begins to break down.
In order to rescue this impossible theory, a range of additional exotic theories have been invented.
For example, it is believed that the thermally increased electron spin rate counteracts the gravitational pressure, which would normally crush its atoms. A kind of miracle occurs in the theory that exempts the atoms in the Sun's core from collapsing under the immense gravitational pressure that acts most strongly on the Sun's central mass where the fusion is deemed to occur.
It has been acknowledged that without the exotic theorized special effects, a star the size of our Sun would collapse into itself by its own gravity, even while it was being born.
It should also be noted that our Sun is a mediocre star among stars.
Supergiant stars do exist that are hundreds of times larger than our Sun with a few-thousand times greater luminosity. The gravitational stress exerted by these super-giant masses makes the stresses in our mediocre Sun appear as small stuff in comparison. It stretches the credibility way past the rational. It opens the gate to the land of fairy tales in physics.
The fairy tales are necessary as the vastly more-powerful force of the universe, the electric force expressed in cosmic electric energy, is not allowed to be recognized as a reality of the universe. It is deemed not to exist.
Historically, when the known evidence doesn't concur with the doctrine, fantastic theories have been invented that adjust perception to bring the evidence into conformity with the doctrine, such as was once dictated by astrophysical philosophy. This is what the astronomer Ptolemy had done two millennia ago with the use of invented epicycles. He defended a doctrine, rather than searching for the truth. This epicycles game is till being played in astrophysics. Exotic theories, such as the Big Bang, black holes, dark matter, dark energy, and so forth, are being deployed to defend the doctrine that denies the existence of plasma electric energy in cosmic space.
The astronomer Johannes Kepler was able to lay aside the doctrine dictated by astrophysical philosophy, and the resulting false theory of the solar system in which the epicycles had ruled for nearly 2,000 years.
Kepler revolutionized astronomy by simply looking at the evidence, allowing it to tell its own story, instead of adjusting the recognized evidence into conformity with preconceived notions. The time has come for this to be done again, regarding our Sun.
The preconceived notion that Ptolemy had laboured under, was the philosophic idea that, with the heavens being perfect, the paths of all planets had to follow perfect circles, since a circle was regarded to be the most 'perfect' geometric figure.
Kepler put the philosophy aside and looked at the evidence with open eyes. Thus, Kepler discovered the laws of gravity and their expression in orbital motions.
If we apply the same open-minded method that Kepler employed, without political preconceptions, to looking at the Sun honestly, then we find that the observed mass relationships do not add up in support of the internal-fusion sun theory. The evidence is rather plain. It tells us that internal solar nuclear fusion is not possible, much less as an energy source.
The evidence tells us that a totally different type of nuclear fusion is happening on the Sun, which defies all conventional doctrines. The real solar fusion is a high-energy type of nuclear fusion, which is electrically powered and is happening on the surface of the Sun. If we look at the evidence honestly, it tells us that the brilliant surface of the Sun is actually a secondary effect of the underlying process that enables electrically powered nuclear fusion to happen, which has built the atoms that formed the planets over the time the solar system evolved. The evidence tells us that the Sun is not atomic in nature itself, but is an atom creating engine.
For this to make sense, we need to look at the evidence once more, and compare the Sun and the planets in the light of that evidence.
As I said earlier, if we compare Saturn and Jupiter for example, which are both gas planets, a principle comes to light that the Sun does not share.
Saturn is 763 times larger in volume than the Earth. Now with Saturn being a gas planet, it has an extremely low average mass-density. Its density is only 12.9% of that of the Earth.
Jupiter, in the same comparison, being a larger planet, which is twice as large in volume, generates a correspondingly larger force of gravity. The larger force of gravity, as one would expect, compresses the planet's gas more intensely. The expected greater compression gives Jupiter a correspondingly greater, nearly double, average mass-density than that of Saturn. This is what we see expressed in the numbers. The nearly double volume of Jupiter, gives Jupiter a nearly double average mass-density. Its mass-density is the equivalent of 24% of the mass-density of the Earth.
Now if we extend this comparison to include the Sun, which has a 1000 times greater volume than Jupiter, the surprise begins that tells us that we are looking at something totally different than a gas body when we look at the Sun.
The Sun has nearly the same average mass-density as Jupiter - a mere 25.5% of the mass-density of the Earth. If the Sun was a gas sphere like Jupiter, but 1000 times larger in volume, then its mass-density would be at least 1000 times greater too, than that of Jupiter. But this is not the case. The Sun's mass-density is nearly the same as that of Jupiter. The evidence tells us that the Sun is not a gas sphere as the general doctrine requires it to be, but is a totally different entity. The principles of plasma physics tell us that our giant sun could exist rather well with its minuscule mass-density as a plasma sphere, but could not exist on any other basis.
The resulting difference between what we should see, and do not see, which is so extremely enormous that it cannot be explained away as the result of thermal gas expansion, especially if one considers that under the current doctrine the solar hydrogen core-density is deemed to be compressed to 150 times the density of liquid water, which is a miracle itself.
The mass-density comparison indicates that the Sun is far from being a gas star, but is something more fundamental in nature than an atomic entity. The evidence tells us that the Sun is the engine that produces all atomic constructs that the planets are made of, and continues to produce them, but is not made up of atomic constructs itself. The evidence tells us that the Sun is a plasma star, and that plasma in space is the stuff that all atomic forms are made of. Furthermore, plasma, as the basic building blocks of the universe, has no structure itself that could be affected by the crushing gravity in a large star.
Isn't this what we see rather plainly evident in the sunspots?
As I said before, when we look through the umbra of the sunspots, we see below the photosphere a great void that is physically pervaded with thinly-spaced plasma particles that are 100,000 times smaller than a hydrogen atom. Thus, when we look through the umbra, and look inside the Sun, we see essentially empty space.
The space that we see is dark. We are not seeing a super-heated gas sphere below the shiny surface, nor do we see the super-heated core inside the Sun that the internal fusion theory tells us we should expect to see as we look through the umbra. Instead we see nothing.
We see a dark void, because we are looking at essentially nothing. There is physically nothing much there. A proton particle in plasma is 100,000 times smaller than an atom. It is too small to be visible. All the big energetic actions that make the Sun a brilliant star occur at the Sun's surface where the Sun acts like a catalytic energy converter at the level of its photosphere where the powerful electric action takes place that supports electrically powered nuclear fusion.
Solar surface nuclear fusion: electrically powered with x-ray intensity extending high into the corona
The electrically powered fusion at the surface of the Sun does not end its fusion chain at the helium-fusion stage, but extends it across the entire range of the natural elements, all the way up to Uranium.
In extremely energized plasma streams electrons become bound to protons to form the most basic type of atom, the hydrogen atom. In a high-energy environments these atoms can be forced to fuse together. The force has to be great enough to overpower the electric repulsion of the proton at the atom's nucleus. When this happens, one of the protons that are forced together becomes internally restructured into a neutron. A neutron has no electric potential, but it has a special quality that causes it to act like a glue that enables larger atomic nuclei with multiple protons to exist.
The simplest form of an atom with a neutron attached is the heavy isotope of hydrogen, called deuterium.
The resulting heavier atoms are now equipped to more readily fuse with each other, which they do quite readily, being aided by their greater mass-to-repulsion ratio. The outcome of the fusion of two deuterium atoms, is a helium atom. The helium atom is made up of two protons and two neutrons in its nucleus.
The helium atom, in turn, serves as a basic building block, a kind of alpha block for a long chain of progressive fusion that synthesizes all the basic elements in the periodic table.
In the example shown here, only the most abundant elements in the solar system are indicated to illustrate how the helium atom, the alpha atom, stands at the root for cobbling together increasingly larger atomic forms. Of course other fusion paths logically exist as well, for the synthesis of the larger elements.
For example, two carbon atoms could fuse with each other to become magnesium; or two beryllium atoms could fuse to become oxygen; and carbon and oxygen could fuse to become silicon; and silicon fusing with magnesium could become iron. These larger types of fusion do evidently all happen on the surface of the Sun.
The fusion products are carried in the solar wind, where they begin to combine into molecular form and ultimately become the building blocks that all the planets in the solar system are made of.
Thus, every planet, comet, or cloud of dust or gas in our galaxy, or in any other galaxy, is synthesized by the solar-type electric fusion action in an anti-entropic manner, instead of being the result of the big bang that is deemed to have created the universe. In the face of the electric solar fusion action, the big bang theory stands like a fairy tale that is not needed to explain anything.
The Sun is not entropic in nature and self-consuming as the internal fusion theory would have it to be, but is instead a creative engine in an anti-entropic universe.
Most of the solar system was evidently created when the Sun itself was created in the star-forming region near the center of our solar system where immensely great plasma densities are evident. With the galaxy itself constantly expanding, the solar system moved away from the galactic center within the plasma currents that flow from the center in the form of the spiral arms.
Our solar system is presently slightly over 25,000 light years distant from a galactic center on a path that appears to be roughly 50,000 light years long. The solar system traversed this path over a span of 4.6 billion years at an expansion rate of one hundredth of a light year per year. Our sun and solar system is presently so far distant from the point of our origin that no rational comparison is possible of the creative fusion process of today's Sun with that of the time when much of the solar system was created. Nevertheless, we still see traces of the creative fusion process happening.
The recognized relative cosmic abundance of elements in the solar system matches still rather closely the ratio of these elements that has been detected to be present in the photosphere of the Sun in modern time.
The historic cosmic abundance values and the present solar fusion values are amazingly similar. The similarity tells us that surface solar fusion is still ongoing as it always has, though at a slower rate. The ratio of the electric fusion products at the surface of the sun corresponds amazingly well with what we know about our Earth's elementary composition.
The major elements that the Earth is composed of, are all high-ranking on the solar-fusion abundance profile. The Earth is primarily composed of four elements that make up the bulk of its mass.
The Earth is 32% iron, 30% oxygen, 15% silicon, and 14% magnesium, with the remaining 9% comprising all the other elements that exist.
Since most of the Earth's iron is contained deep within the core of the Earth, oxygen is the major contributor to almost everything else. 88% of the oceans are made up of oxygen, and so are 49% of the Earth's crust. The rocks of the Earth are all made up of various types of oxides that are mostly oxides of silicates. The mantle of the Earth too, is a thick layer of orthosilicates, mostly of magnesium.
Much of the same can be said of the Earth's atmosphere. 78% of it is nitrogen that ranks high on the fusion-abundance scale; and nearly 21% of the atmosphere of the Earth is oxygen, which ranks even higher. The rest of the atmosphere is composed of trace gases. The bottom line is that the Earth and all other planets in the solar system are evidently the product of electric solar fusion. If it wasn't for the Sun being a powerful electric star, we simply wouldn't exist. Not a single planet would exist, which really cannot exist on any other basis. A large body of credible evidence points in the direction that electric solar fusion has created the atomic elements of the planets of the solar system, rather than the mythical primordial Big Bang explosion that is deemed to have caused the universe to exist.
Some proof that the oxygen of the Earth came from the Sun, and still does to a minute degree, is seen in the sky. When oxygen combines with hydrogen, water molecules are formed. The shimmering that we see in the sky here, long after sunset, called the noctilucent clouds, is the result of reflected sunlight by water-ice crystals that have formed clouds at extremely high altitudes in the stratosphere, ranging 75-85 kilometers above the surface of the Earth. It is not possible for the heavy water vapour in the atmosphere to reach to such extreme heights from the ground, though it is possible for this water vapor to have come from the Sun, flowing with the solar wind.
More than 60 of the basic elements in the periodic table have been identified to be present in the solar atmosphere, with the remaining being too rare to be detectable. Even the large and heavy iron atoms are said to be present in the solar photosphere. These elements should not be present if only hydrogen fusion would occur in the Sun, and this so deep inside the core of the Sun, according to the solar internal-fusion model, that it takes 30 million years of convection to bring its heat and fusion products to the surface.
Of course the nuclear fusion process that seeds the solar system with its massive store of all the basic atomic elements, ranging from hydrogen to uranium, including also the iron that makes up 30% of the mass of the Earth, is not a process that is happening at the center of the Sun.
The massive fusion process that we have evidence of is not possible inside a star, but it is possible at the surface of a star, and it is happening there, including on our Sun, where electric fusion is happening in the photosphere. This concept is supported by a considerable volume of evidence.
The Big Bang creation myth refuted by the electric solar fusion model.
The electric solar fusion theory and its evidence present to us a solid foundation for stepping away from the Big Bang creation mythology of the universe that offers no more a rational basis to be believable than do all the numerous ancient creation myths. Nor does the Big Bang creation myth offer provable supporting evidence, as it, like all the ancient myths, renders the Earth once again as the center of the universe, with the universe being deemed to be explosively expanding away from the Earth in all directions.
The Big Bang creation theory is built on the red-shift of spectral lines from distant galaxies, which is deemed to indicate that the distant galaxies are moving away from us the observer. The phenomenon is seen to indicate that the universe is rapidly expanding in an explosive manner.
However, with light being electromagnetic in nature, being propagated through evermore networks of plasma streams on their path to the earth, they would naturally suffer a slight energy depletion over long distances that corresponds with longer waves resulting in the propagation process. In this context the red-shift phenomenon can actually be seen as strong evidence supporting the electric universe theory that recognizes 99.999% of the mass of the universe to exist in the form of plasma that carries an electric charge.
The electric concept of the universe envisions a cosmos that is anti-entropic in nature, and is dynamically self-creative from its self-powered infinite basis, pervaded by cosmic electric energy streams, rather than being the product of a primordial imploding gas cloud.
The cosmic evidence for the electric universe is visible in part in the string-like formations of galaxies along the path of major plasma flows, as can be seen in many ways in this view of the 35,000 galaxies detected in the Capodemonte deep field.
The World-creating nuclear fusion is an energy-consuming process.
That nuclear fusion is essentially an energy-consuming process, powered by cosmic electric energy, is evident by the effect of the reversal of the fusion process, such as by splitting the fused atoms apart whereby latent energy is released.
The proof is in the atomic bomb. The flash of energy that destroyed Hiroshima, in the flicker of a moment, was not created by the nuclear reaction in the bomb. The energy that the bomb produced had been previously invested by the Sun in its electric fusion synthesis that among all the basic elements has also forged the uranium atoms, including the incomplete isotope U235 that is highly unstable. U235 is so unstable that it emits a neutron in a natural decay process.
If the emitted neutron impacts with another U235 nucleus, it creates an excited uranium-236 nucleus that instantly splits up into two fast-moving lighter elements, the fission products, and releases three free neutrons, some to start a chain of such reactions and some to unwind their energy in the form of thermal energy.
The process of unwinding previously bound up energy is efficient, because the reaction produces three times as many neutrons than it consumes. In an atomic bomb, that uses high concentration of U235, a vast shower of fission reactions occur instantly. In a nuclear power reactor only low concentrations of U235 are used, and the chain-reaction is slowed down artificially in a controlled manner. But in either case, the 'unwound' energy was invested on the surface of the Sun when the heavy uranium atom was synthesized in an electric fusion process.
On the Sun, enormous flows of energy are concentrated in the form of electric energy as we see here visibly apparent on a larger scale in the Red Square nebula. When big results are needed, and in considering that the electric force is 39 orders of magnitude stronger than gravity, then the big forces of the universe, the electromagnetic forces, become the actors on the cosmic stage, simply because they have the power that meets the requirement. The cosmic electric streams furnish the energy that we recapture in our nuclear power reactors on earth.
This secondary utilization of solar energy applies to all forms of nuclear power reactors, including the nuclear fusion power reactor that we utilize in the hydrogen bomb, and also the fusion reactors that we aim to utilize some day for electric power production.
Nuclear fusion is a highly energy-consuming process, which makes it basically an inefficient candidate for nuclear power production, except in cases were extremely overbuilt atoms are fused, whereby a portion of the excess binding energy becomes unwound.
Nuclear fusion is an energy consuming process, because it takes a great investment of energy to overcome the electric repulsion of atomic nuclei that prevents atoms from merging. When in a reaction chamber the near impossible happens, and the barrier is overcome, the energy that forces the binding of the fusing atoms remains invested in the atoms. When, later, an atom is split, a bound particle is released and its binding energy is released with it.
In the case of a thermonuclear bomb or power reactor, two overbuilt heavy isotopes of hydrogen, deuterium and tritium are forced to fuse. One of the excess neutrons of the tritium becomes thereby unbound with a highly energetic punch. The energy that is released, is, according Einstein's famous formula, a factor of the neutron's mass and its unbinding velocity. The energy that is released is therefore not a product of the fusion itself, but is the product of the unbinding of the excess particle that has no place in the resulting new atom.
In the case shown here, the released energy is derived from the tritium. It is energy that has been previously invested in the building of the tritium atom.
In the case of the deuterium-tritium fusion, the released energy didn't come directly from the Sun, but from a multi-stage process that leads back to the Sun as the originator of the latent energy.
The deuterium for the fusion reaction is found in seawater at extremely low concentrations. It takes the processing of 600,000 tonnes of seawater to produce enough deuterium for one tonne of fusion fuel that would produce one gigawatt of energy for a year, provided that a workable reactor could be built. However, the unwound energy, as was shown earlier, does not come from the deuterium itself, which merely facilitates the fusion. The unwound energy comes from the tritium, which has the extra neutron to be split off.
Unfortunately tritium doesn't exist naturally. It needs to be bred in a nuclear fission reactor, or inside a nuclear fission bomb that contains a fusion bomb at its core. Tritium is so fragile that it decays rather quickly, which means that it cannot be found naturally. It can only be synthesized, which is typically accomplished with the nuclear fissioning of lithium in a nuclear power reactor.
When lithium is placed in a nuclear reactor core, it steals neutrons and consumes them in the fission-production of tritium. When a lithium nucleus is hit with an energetic neutron, it splits apart into a helium atom and a tritium atom. In this exchange process no fundamental gain is actually realized. One neutron is being consumed and one tritium atom is created. The tritium is then placed into a fusion reactor that releases the one previously captured neutron. However, with the tritium being a fission product, it carries a greater binding energy that was previously invested in solar fusion that created the lithium atom. The only role that the nuclear reactor plays in the process, is the fissioning of the lithium that splits off a nuclear cluster that carries a bigger punch.
This means that the energy-flash explosion of a hydrogen bomb is nothing more that a tightly concentrated, efficient flow of released energy from a multi-stage fission process of atoms that had been previously synthesized at the surface of the Sun.
The multi-stage chain starts with a uranium fission process that facilitates lithium fission right in the bomb, which in turn produces the tritium that gives us the bigger punch when it unbinds its excess neutron before becoming a part of a new helium atom. The Castle Bravo test shown here utilized lithium-7 to synthesize tritium. Lithium-7 fissions with the impact of high-energy neutrons derived from the tritium once the fusion-fission process gets going. Lithium-7 has an extra neutron that it lets go when it fissions, which starts a lithium fission chain reaction that produces more and more tritium. The chain reaction is so efficient that the Castle Bravo test yielded almost 3 times the energy output that had been anticipated and resulted in great unforeseen damage. The surprising increased yield has set the stage for modern thermonuclear war, which when unleashed, will likely cause the extinction of humanity.
Thermonuclear war has the potential to cause the extinction of humanity. It takes less than two hours of warfare to create the type of conditions on earth that no one can survive, or extremely few. I have explored the human dimension of it in a minimalistic fashion a few decades ago in my novel, Brighter than the Sun.
Let's make no mistake about the intention that still continues, to ignite a nuclear war. The intention has not changed from the day the first atom bomb was dropped. While the attempts to start such a war has been blocked on numerous occasions, the underlying intention remains and will continue to be pursued for as long as the oligarchic system remains in control of humanity that requires war to maintain its dominance and its existence.
I have conducted a study of the dynamics involved, documented in my video, Sovereignty versus Nuclear War. The danger in this case is not caused by the achievements of science and technology, but by the intentionally thwarted development of society's humanity. The answer lies not in blocking the advance of science and technology, which is not possible anyway. What has been discovered has been discovered and remains with us. This means that the security of the world depends on the efforts we all make in advancing the scientific development of our humanity that assures the beneficial utilization of our physical-science capabilities.
The lithium-7 chain-reaction fission will be tested in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor that is being built in France. The test reactor, when it is completed in 2020 will be one of the most gigantic technological experimental machines ever built. It will stand a quarter as tall as the great Giza pyramid in Egypt. When it becomes operational in 2027, it is expected to release 500 megawatts of energy, sustained for up to 1,000 seconds. It is built to explore the many natural barriers that stand against the realization of practical nuclear fusion-fission energy production.
One barrier is that the released neutrons are so highly energetic that they destroy the metals that a fusion reactor is made off. Another barrier is that the fusion product quickly dilutes the fuel density, whereby the reaction blows itself out. The third major barrier is that the shielding that would protect the lithium-7 fission reactions for the tritium breeding, blocks the high-energy neutrons that are needed for the reaction. But the biggest barrier to-date is the energy that is required to cause the fusion to happen. While the neutron-rich tritium is the most-readily fusing isotope, the break-even point for energy-input for heating and containment versus energy released, has not yet been surpassed in any significant manner. ITER aims for a 5-fold increase. It is a big open question whether any of these barriers can be overcome, much less all of them together. And even if we would get there, we would still be stuck in the mode of burning a consumable fuel that has been previously produced on the Sun in its high-density electric nuclear-fusion synthesise where all the known elements are produced.
It is simply not possible for any type of nuclear power processes on earth, including the most exotic processes like the one for which the experiment was built that is shown here, to actually create energy.
Limitless nuclear-fusion energy production remains simply a dream that can never come true. Any nuclear reaction that we can achieve on earth can at best only release a portion of the energy that had previously been invested into the atom-building process on the Sun.
Some of the energy-extracting processes that we have achieved on earth are more efficient than others, but in essence they all share the common denominator that they are but glorified entropic processes of burning a fuel.
The universe aids us in harvesting the solar energy that is invested in uranium by burning it as a fuel that is giving us 3 neutrons back for every neutron consumed. That's highly efficient. The fusion-fission process, by its very nature, doesn't even come close to that. Even the lithium-7 fusion chain, should it become possible to implement, would be far less efficient and relies on a limited resource base that will likely be depleted in a few hundred years. A similar resource limit exists for uranium and thorium nuclear fission fuels.
The bottom line is that commercial thermonuclear fusion power production is simply a dream that has so many barriers standing against it that it will likely never come true, and is affected by much of the same resource depletion limit as are the conventional nuclear fission fuels.
And why would we need to limit ourselves to burning fuels at all, for power production, including the most exotic fuels that are presently contemplated? Our scientific recognition tells us that our Sun is so intensely flush with electric energy that the most extensive nuclear fusion takes place routinely on its surface, with relative ease. The discovered fact should cause us to take steps to avail ourselves of the cosmic energy more directly, which appears to be extensively available to us.
According to a NASA study, our ionosphere is rich with electric energy, concentrated in two bands around the magnetic equator.
Since we see the same two energy-rich bands circling also the Sun, what we see on the Sun suggests to us that the same pattern that we see on earth in the ionosphere, reflects a potential that offers us a natural interface on earth with the great cosmic energy streams that power the Sun.
While this resource would be of course expressed on earth in a correspondingly more modest manner, it promises to be far bigger than our needs for energy will ever be.
The cosmic electric energy streams that flow through the solar system, which also flow through every other solar system in every galaxy and power every star, is the only true anti-entropic energy resource that we can possibly have and are able to utilize without the limits of resource depletion.
At the present, this vastly available and endless energy resource falls by the wayside unused, except to power hurricanes, tornadoes, lightning, and some geologic services and so forth. Some day we will begin to utilize this unused cosmic energy resource more directly, which promises us energy-flux-densities on a scale that is almost beyond imagination. It will then tie us into the majestic energy streams that flow through the cosmos.
The electric force in the cosmos is expressed in free-flowing plasma streams. At the plasma state matter exists as electrons and protons in their unbound state. In their unbound state these primary building blocks of the tangible universe, carry an electric charge of great potential. When unbound electric currents flow, they create magnetic fields around them. The magnetic fields, in turn, act on the current flow and draws the currents together into ever tighter confinement. By this pinch effect, which is the effect of the Lorentz force, a unique type of magnetic field is created at the highest point of concentration, which in turn causes an ever-more intense compression of the plasma. It produces the type of high-density compression that causes natural atomic fusion to occur on the Sun.
Of course, this strongly flowing electromagnetic compression of plasma is only possible to act at the surface of the Sun where nothing impedes the plasma concentration, but aids it.
The principle of electromagnetic plasma compression has been recently illustrated by the plasma physicist David LaPoint, who named the unique electromagnetic fields that cause the compression, the Primer Fields.
He illustrated in laboratory experiments that the Primer Fields cause the inflowing plasma to become magnetically trapped below a magnetic structure that he calls the confinement dome. He also illustrated that there are two ways for the intensely trapped plasma to escape their compression.
In the case of the Sun, a portion of the compressed plasma escapes through the top of the confinement dome, at its weakest point, in the form of the solar wind. Thus the solar wind is made up of plasma and a mixture of atoms and ions that flow with it. The water vapour for the noctilucent clouds comes to the Earth by this process. Similar effects can be observed in a number of different ways.
One indication that nuclear fusion happens dynamically by electric power being concentrated at the surface of the Sun, can be gleamed from changing patterns of the beryllium-deposit density. The discovered changing density of beryllium deposits correspond closely with the sunspot numbers in an inverse relationship. When the plasma-density is high in the solar system, which gives us increased sunspots and increased fusion activity at the solar surface, the beryllium density is low, as a greater portion would be used up by it becoming fused into carbon and oxygen, and so on.
The closely corresponding fluctuations wouldn't be occurring if the fusion process would occur deep within the core of the Sun as the fusion-powered sun theory suggests, which is thereby countered.
A similar relationship is also evident in the long-term carbon dioxide concentration in the air. In the long sweep of historic time, the carbon dioxide concentration in the air, follows the general pattern of global temperature changes, which in turn reflect the changing solar intensity. The dramatic reduction in the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration in our atmosphere, that has occurred from its high value 100 million years ago during the Coniferous Period, to the present low value, corresponds surprisingly well with the reduced solar activity in this period that the cooler climate reflects.
While this interrelationship doesn't prove anything in itself, since the carbon dioxide measurements from 100 million years ago are generally uncertain and vary with different types of research, they nevertheless correspond with what one would theoretically expect with the Sun being the primary source of the carbon and oxygen that make up CO2. At high levels of solar activity more CO2 would be formed in the solar wind and be captured by the gravity of the Earth.
Since all life on the Earth depends on water, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and nitrogen in the atmosphere, which are all formed in abundance by the solar fusion at the surface of the Sun. Thereby the Sun is a far-more fundamental factor for life on our planet than it being merely a thermal energy source, and even it being the fountain for all the planets constituent elements.
Some day in the future the Sun will be recognized for what it really is, the builder of worlds and the nourisher of life in all its vast expressions. And it will also be recognized then that the Sun, being electrically powered by cosmic plasma streams, is vulnerable to becoming inactive for certain periods when the plasma streams that power it become periodically too thin by the ever-changing dynamics in cosmic space.
Some day it will be recognized that the Sun may turn off in the near future, possibly as soon as 30 years from now, under the ever-changing cosmic dynamics. For this too, the transition evidence is also already visible. If we are alert to what the Sun is and to the dynamics that affect it, we have the power within our humanity to restructure our world and protect us from the consequences of the dynamics that affect our Sun.
If we develop the power we have, we won't miss a beat when the Sun powers down to 30% for a thousand years. If we get to this point we will have the richest civilization ever created.
This appears to be the greatest gift that the Sun has in store for us, an incentive to become human to the highest degree possible. If we fail to take the incentive, the coming ice age will reduce the human presence back to the few millions that survived the last ice age living of fish. But why should we fail. We have developed our humanity into the greatest scientific and technological power that ever existed on the face of the planet, which is well able to meet the challenge that now stands before us.