Click on the images for a
The mainstream science consensus is that the Sun is a sphere of hydrogen gas that is internally heated. Gravitational compression is deemed to have raised the temperature of its core to 15 million degrees, and to an unimaginable great mass density at its core, in the order of a 150 times the density of water. The temperature and pressure is deemed to be so great, that hydrogen atoms at its core are forced to combine into heavier atoms, primarily into helium atoms, and it is further deemed that the process liberates energy, which is deemed to be the energy that the Sun radiates. It deemed that the energy generated reaches the surface over a span on 10,000 years, to 170,000 years, or up to 30 million years as it was once believed.
Whatever the case may be, the widely accepted theory of the nature of the Sun is full of holes and paradoxes, and is devoid evidence that exclusively supports the theory. Let's look at the paradoxes.
** The Sunspot Paradox
Paradox #1 is that the observed sunspots, which are holes in the Sun's surface, are dark spots, not bright spots as they should be if the Sun was internally heated.
The dark umbra of the sunspots is theorized to result from 'dark energy' streaming through the photosphere, blocking the light from within, which is a paradox in itself.
** The Solar-Wind Paradox
Paradox #2 is that the Sun emits streams of free plasma particles as solar wind. The solar wind of plasma particles shouldn't be happening when the nuclear fusion process deep inside the Sun is said to combine atoms into larger ones, rather than tearing them apart to produce plasma.
** The Solar-Wind-Acceleration Paradox
Paradox #3 is that the solar wind accelerates as it flows away from the Sun, against the force of the Sun's gravity, up to a distance 100-times greater than the distance from the Sun to the Earth, where it forms the heliosphere.
** The Super-Hot-Corona Paradox
Paradox #4 is that the Sun's surrounding corona is enormously hotter than the Sun itself. This shouldn't be possible when the heat comes from within. The outside shouldn't be hotter than the inside.
** The Low-Mass-Density Paradox
Paradox #5 is that the Sun is a thousand times too light, for a gas sphere of its size, if one compares the Sun with known gas spheres. With Jupiter being a gas planet of twice the volume of Saturn, Jupiter weighs in with twice the overall mass density than Saturn as the natural consequence of greater gas compression by Jupiter's greater gravity. But if one extends the comparison to the Sun, which has a thousand times larger volume than Jupiter, the principle of gas compression isn't reflected. The Sun weighs in with roughly the same overall mass density than Jupiter. That's a paradox. The Sun is a thousand times too light for a gas sphere of its size, especially with a compressed core that is 150 times denser than water. The measured facts defy the gas-sun theory.
** The Giant-Stars Paradox
Paradox #6 is that giant stars shouldn't exist, like the star UY Scuti. This star has a five billion-times greater volume than the Sun, but only contains 10 times the mass of the Sun. This shouldn't be possible under the gas compression model.
But this star exists, and it outshines our Sun 340,000-fold. This too, shouldn't be possible under the gas compression model for the Sun.
** The Solar Cosmic-Rays Paradox
Paradox #7 is that the Sun also emits cosmic-ray flux. Cosmic rays are single events of highly energized protons and electrons.
It is deemed impossible for these to originate from a gas sun, so that all cosmic-ray events are deemed to be galactic in origin. It is reasoned that if the cosmic-ray particles get intercepted in the Earth's thin atmosphere, that's just a few kilometers deep, none would make it past the Sun's half-million kilometers deep outer layer of hydrogen gas.
The paradox here is that cosmic-ray fluctuations have been measured in proxy to consistently fluctuate in perfect synchronism with the Sun's activity cycles, as it is shown here in Berillium-10 ratios.
The same lock step synchronism of cosmic-ray flux with the solar cycles is also being measured in real time by the Moscow Neutron Monitor.
** The Solar-Cycles Paradox
Paradox #8 is that the Sun's activity is pulsing in 11-year solar cycles, and that the pulsing is changing in intensity. This fast pulsing and diminishing shouldn't be possible for a gas sun in which the solar energy takes 10,000 years, up to 170,000 years or more, to reach the surface.
** The Sunlight Paradox
Paradox #9 is the sunlight that the Sun emits. With a few exceptions, all visible light is emitted from energized atomic elements. The light from atoms is emitted in different bands within the visible spectrum, according to the physical characteristic of the emitting atomic structures.
Since the Sun is deemed to be a hydrogen gas star, its emission spectrum should match the emission spectrum of hydrogen gas. But this is not the case. It is well known that the Sun emits a richly homogenous spectrum, and that this kind of spectrum can't possibly originate from a hydrogen gas star that our Sun is deemed to be. That's a paradox.
** The Atomic Elements Paradox
Paradox #10 is, that the Sun is known to be surrounded with a wide rage of atomic elements, which have been detected by their spectrum in the photosphere. Paradoxically, they shouldn't be found on the surface of the hydrogen Sun. These heavy elements should have been purged from the surface by the solar wind, or been swallowed by the Sun's gravity, especially the heavy, iron.
** The Differential Rotation Paradox
Paradox #11 is that the Sun rotates faster at its equator than at its poles. This isn't possible for a gas sphere. Still it is happening.
These many paradoxes suggest rather strongly that the mainstream consensus model for the Sun is fundamentally wrong.
This also means that a different model needs to be developed that is free of those paradoxes, and which in addition, is supported by measurable physical evidence.
NASA has helped us in this quest.
The Plasma Sun versus the Gas Sun.
Differences in Mass Distribution
NASA has opened the portal to us, that enables us to see the Sun as being radically different than it is deemed to be. NASA's discoveries enable us to see our Sun as being a Plasma Star, with qualities that make it a natural sun.
With this in mind, let's explore the concept of the Plasma Star concept. Let's do this first so that NASA's revolutionary contributions can be more easily recognized.
The Plasma Star: A leading-edge concept in astrophysics.
A plasma star is a large sphere of plasma, with differences in mass-distribution that give the plasma sphere a radically different characteristic than that of a gas sphere.
Plasma is the name for subatomic particles when they exist in space in free form, instead of being bound into atoms.
When plasma particles are free, the individual plasma particles radiate their electric potentials. This means they interact with each other with one of the strongest forces in the universe, which is the electric force that is 39 orders of magnitude stronger than the force of gravity.
There exist two types of plasma particles. One type is named the electron. It carries a negative electric potential. And the other type, which is 1800 times larger in size, is named the proton. It carries a positive electric potential.
Particles of like potential repel each other, and those of unlike potentials attract each other.
In plasma, the tiny electron is intensely drawn to the big proton. But before the electron can latch itself onto the proton, the electron is repelled at a close distance by a unique nuclear force. The repelled electron, of course, becomes attracted anew by the electric force. In this manner, the electrons in plasma are drawn into an endless dance around the protons.
But within a large sphere of plasma, the force of gravity also plays a role. By gravitational pressure, the dance of the electrons tend to migrate the electrons away from the center of gravity, towards the surface. This means that protons at the core of a large plasma sphere are being less swarmed about. They become thereby less eclectically isolated, and more able to repel each other with the electric force.
The end-result is that a large plasma sphere has its least mass density at its core, and its greatest mass density at its surface, and with it also its greatest electron density.
With its electron-rich surface, a large plasma sphere is a natural sun. It is a sun, because its highly concentrated negative electric potential radiates far into space and attracts interstellar plasma to it, that it interacts with in such an energetic manner that the inflowing plasma particles become bound to each other by organizing principles with which all known natural atomic elements are synthesized.
By this process, a plasma sphere is a plasma star.
A plasma star is essentially a largely empty sphere of plasma, with an intensely active surface region where all the energetic actions take place, which in turn is surrounded by a sphere of interstellar plasma that it attracts, that becomes concentrated around it by a complex electromagnetic process.
This means that nothing actually happens inside a plasma sun, which our Sun is, because it fits all the parameters.
Our plasma-Sun's energy is generated on its surface in a sea of reactions cells where plasma is intensely fused into atomic elements of all types that are known to exist naturally.
Of course, the highly energized synthesized atomic elements emit large volumes of light and with a wide emission spectrum, because a large variety of atoms are involved in the light-emitting process.
The Plasma Sun concept eliminates ALL paradoxes of the Gas Sun theory of mainstream consensus.
The Plasma Sun solves Paradox #1 by simply acknowledging that the sunspot umbra is dark, because nothing happens inside the plasma sun.
A plasma sun doesn't actually create energy. It merely attracts plasma and facilitates the plasma fusion that creates atomic elements in an energetic process on its surface that radiate some energy in the form of light.
Sunspots form when overload conditions cause the fusion cells to rupture, revealing thereby that the energetic solar action process is but skin deep.
Paradox #2, the solar-wind paradox, is resolved by the build-in dynamics of the fusion cells.
The in-flowing plasma becomes intensely concentrated by magnetic fields that are generated by the movement of plasma. The movement of electric particles generates magnetic fields. When the confined pressure exceeds the strength of the confining magnetic fields, a portion of the concentrated plasma escaped at the weakest point at the top of the confining field.
This dynamic process has been experimentally verified by researcher David LaPoint.
The escaping plasma from the top of fusion cells becomes collectively the solar wind. Solar wind is only possible by a plasma-fusion process, and this occurs only on the surface of a plasma Sun.
Plasma escaping a magnetic confinement structure.
Paradox #3, the solar-wind acceleration paradox, is not a paradox for the plasma sun, because the solar wind particles are emitted in highly concentrated form, from the fusion cells. When intensely concentrated plasma escapes the magnetic confinement structure, it becomes free to expand again, which it does explosively by the electric force. The flowing plasma, of course, forms magnetic fields around it that keep the flowing stream pinched together, within which that plasma continues to expand. This, too, has been verified experimentally by David LaPoint.
The expansion is powered exclusively by the electric force that accelerates the flowing plasma to a velocity of over 800 kilometers per second and projects it over a distance 100 times the distance between the Sun and the Earth.
The flowing of the solar wind can be likened to a heated kettle boiling off steam. Since water cannot be heated to more than 100 degrees at sea-level pressure, all excess heat that is applied, converts water into steam. Likewise on the plasma sun, when 'excess' plasma pressure bears down on it, some of the excess is vented off as solar wind.
This means that for as long as the solar wind flows from our Sun, there is enough plasma pressure surrounding the Sun to keep it operating in a high-powered mode.
However, when the heat is turned down on a boiling kettle, steam stops flowing from it and the water cools.
This means that when the plasma pressure around our Sun becomes reduced to the point that the solar wind no longer flows, we find that the fusion reactions are beginning to diminish thereafter, when the solar system continues to weaken. In short, the Sun 'cools' down after the solar wind stops.
Also Paradox #4, the super-heated solar corona paradox, is resoled by the plasma sun concept, and in a similar manner than the solar wind paradox is resolved.
Atomic elements in the corona emit light when they are energized electromagnetically. This means, that the more-intensely atomic elements in the corona are energized by the out-flowing solar wind, the more intense will be the light emitted in the corona. The light intensity, in such cases, is measured as temperature.
The temperature in the corona increases by this process with the distance from the Sun. It increases with the distance from the Sun, because the solar-wind velocity increases with the distance from the Sun. As the solar wind flows through the corona, it is accelerated electromagnetically to ever-greater velocity. As the result, several millions of degrees have been measured in the solar corona, in some cases, in the outer regions.
Paradox #5, the mass-density paradox, is of course likewise not a paradox under the plasma Sun.
The extremely low mass-density of the Sun, which is a paradox for the gas-sun, accurately reflects the nature of the plasma sun as a largely empty shell that is electrically 'inflated' from within by the mutually repelling protons in its core. The protons in the core have fewer electrons shielding them from each other.
As an electrically inflated shell of plasma, the known, extremely low mass density of our Sun for its size, is not an enigma, but is inherent in its very nature. Thereby, our Sun's extremely low mass-density, proves our Sun to be a plasma star, and every other star to be a plasma star likewise.
A gas planet is atomic in nature. As such it reflects only gravitational dynamics. These cause extreme gas compression inside a large gas sphere. In contrast, a plasma sun is shaped by electrodynamics where gravity plays only a minor role. The resulting two different structures are incomparable thereby.
This means that the mass-density difference between the Sun and that of gas planets, is no longer a paradox, because the two are fundamentally different structures by their very nature, with opposite characteristics. A plasma sphere has the least mass-density at its core, where the atomic gas sphere has its greatest mass density at its core, which actually limits the size of a gas sphere.
The gas-compression limit of a gas sphere is prominently reflected in Paradox #6, the large-star paradox. The enormous size of the star UY Scuti makes it impossible for this star to be a gas star. The gas-compression would cause it explode. But it is totally possible for the star to exist as a plasma star. This means that the large star isn't a paradox then as a plasma star, but proves in its extreme that every sun is a plasma star, as a universal principle.
The star UY Scuti has its ten solar masses spread across its thin plasma shell. This means, that since a plasma sun doesn't create the energy it radiates, but merely acts as a catalytic converter of in-flowing energy, the star UY Scuti, which is 1700 times larger in diameter than our Sun, and has a nearly 3 million times larger surface, is able to outshine our Sun 340,000-fold with its mere 10 solar masses. No paradox exists here.
Paradox #7, the cosmic-ray paradox, is likewise non-existent with the plasma sun.
While solar cosmic-ray flux is impossible under the gas-fusion model of mainstream-consensus cosmology, so that all cosmic-ray flux is deemed to be exclusively galactic in nature, solar cosmic-ray flux is as natural for a plasma Sun as is the solar wind.
Solar cosmic-ray flux is natural for a plasma sun, because it is generated on the surface of the Sun. It is as natural as the synthesizing of atomic elements by a plasma sun, and the emission of light and heat by the atomic elements, which all happens on the solar surface. Nothing comes deep within.
Solar cosmic-ray flux is as natural as all that. In fact it is an unavoidable by-product of plasma fusion happening on the surface of the Sun.
Cosmic-ray flux is a profusion of single plasma particles escaping the fusion cells in highly energized form, in contrast with solar wind that is a 'continuous stream' of low-energized plasma particles.
That the vast majority of the cosmic-ray flux that is encountered on Earth, originates with the Sun, is evident in the measured ratios of two types of radioisotopes, Carbon-14 and Berillium-10, which are a part of the reaction products of cosmic-ray interaction with the Earth's atmosphere. Both Carbon-14 and Berillium-10 are exclusively produced by the Sun by cosmic-ray interaction. The rate of their production is measurable.
Carbon-14 is also exclusively produced by cosmic-ray flux. That most of Carbon-14 is caused by the Sun is evident by the direct relationship of the climate on Earth with the changing Carbon-14 ratios. When the solar activity is strong, the ratio is low, and the climate is warm. The changing ratio proves that the global warming from the 1700s onward, was caused exclusively by the Sun being a plasma star that emits cosmic-ray flux in proportion of solar activity.
When the solar activity is strong, the plasma sphere that surrounds the plasma-star Sun is likewise strong, whereby greater volumes of cosmic-ray particles become trapped in it, and lesser volumes affect the Earth. Inversely, in times when the solar activity is weak, a lesser sphere of plasma surrounds the Sun, which causes the Sun to be less active, while larger volumes of solar cosmic-ray events penetrate the lesser plasma sphere and affect the Earth.
That the fluctuating cosmic-ray flux is solar in origin is evident by the fact that the isotope ratios follow both the solar cycles and the known climate fluctuations.
In more recent times a third proxy for solar cosmic-ray flux is being measured, by measuring the atmospheric neutron flux density. Since cosmic-ray interaction also generates free neutrons in the atmosphere, which are short-lived, the measuring of the neutron density provides a near perfect means to measure solar cosmic-ray flux in real time, which of course follows the solar cycles in perfect synchronism. The synchronism proves that cosmic-ray flux is primarily solar in origin, and that the Sun is a plasma star that is exclusively able to emit cosmic-ray events.
A gas star is cosmic-ray dead, because cosmic rays cannot penetrate the half-million kilometer thick gas shell that is deemed to surround the core of the theorized gas sun. This fact renders the gas-sun theory false, according to measured evidence.
Paradox #8 is a similar paradox. It is the paradox of the 11-year solar cycles and their changing intensity that shouldn't be possible for a gas sun, but are happening.
The gas-sun model doesn't support the phenomenon of fast changing solar cycles, except in dreaming. The gas-sun model that is deemed to have nuclear fusion heat generated at its core, which supposedly oozes to the solar surface over a span of 10,00 years to 170,000 years, potentially up to 30-million years as has also been proposed, lacks the capacity to generate the short 11-year solar cycles that are a standard feature of the Sun. That's the paradox.
The plasma-sun model is free of this paradox, because the solar cycles and all the numerous other cycles that affect our climate, are not caused by the Sun itself, but are caused by resonating plasma features external to the Sun, within the solar system, but which affect the Sun.
Paradox #9 is located in the sunlight that the Sun emits. If the Sun was a gas sphere of mainly hydrogen, then the sunlight would be limited to the sparse colors of the hydrogen gas emission spectrum.
Since we see a vastly richer, wider, and homogenous spectrum of colors in the sunlight, a paradox unfolds here that we don't encounter with the plasma Sun, though many would disagree. The sunlight paradox is best resolved by solving Paradox #10.
Paradox #10 is the paradox of the profusion of atomic elements that have been detected on the solar surface. If the Sun would draw these atomic elements from surrounding space, they would not dwell on the surface, but would be drawn to the Sun's center of gravity, to the core.
The plasma Sun is free of this contradiction, because the plasma Sun synthesizes all atomic elements that naturally exist, right on its surface, by plasma fusion. This means that we have a wide range of atomic elements on the solar surface where they are created, all emitting light in different spectra, so that the combination yields the wonderfully wide band of color that is contained in the sunlight.
This means that only the plasma Sun can generate the rich spectrum of the sunlight that we see, whereby the paradox is solved.