Transcript  list for the video Plasma Astrophysics #11: Neutrons and Solar-Radio-Flux by Rolf Witzsche - Ice Age Ahead (iaa)

Transcript list by scene for the video: 
Plasma Astrophysics #11: Neutrons and Solar-Radio-Flux



- 1 - In the past, solar activity was measured in proxy by counting sunspots
- 2 - This yardstick for measuring solar activity in terms of sunspot numbers has been used for a long time
- 3 - The boundary between successive cycles occurs in the 'valley' region
- 4 - The polarity reversal is 'measurable' in the characteristic of the sunspots
- 5 - The orientation of the loops indicates the prevailing magnetic polarity orientation
- 6 - But what happens when there are no sunspots visible anymore on the Sun ?
- 7 - We had been once in such a predicament before, in the 1600s when almost no sunspots were visible for 30 years
- 8 - Society had no idea then how close it had come to the breakdown of the interglacial climate
- 9 - Humanity had lacked the capacity to look below the zero-sunspot threshold
- 10 - The very concept of an Ice Age was unknown in the 1600s
- 11 - Over time, the invisible became visible
- 12 - The new yardstick became the Neutron Monitor.
- 13 - In the interaction of solar cosmic-ray flux with the Earth's atmosphere, showers of neutrons are released
- 14 - The measured neutron flux stands as a real-time proxy for solar cosmic-ray flux
- 15 - This type of measurement works only in real-time
- 16 - The importance of this new proxy for measuring solar activity is becoming evermore critical
- 17 - By a similar process the Earth became warmer for almost 300 years, following the little Ice Age
- 18 - The accumulative result was that the climate on Earth was getting progressively warmer for 300 years.
- 19 - The neutron monitor measures in real time what the Berillium-10 ratios had measured in historic time
- 20 - In the plot of the measured neutron density ratios, a distinct up-trend in the neutron ratios is apparent
- 21 - Ulysses had measured the beginning of the boundary zone in which the solar dynamics are now collapsing
- 22 - Ulysses had established a benchmark rate-of-collapse of 30% per decade
- 23 - The 30% rate of collapse, per decade continues to be apparent in the measured neutron ratios
- 24 - The Moscow Neutron Monitor, one of several, lets us look forward in time
- 25 - Another real-time measurement that lets us look past the zero-boundary into the future
- 26 - Large-scale indoors agriculture that the climate cannot affect, may be our only option to have a future
- 27 - Towards the goal of winning the fight against the world's prevailing smallness in thinking

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Published by Cygni Communications Ltd. North Vancouver, BC, Canada - (C) in public domain - producer Rolf A. F. Witzsche