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One of the amazing phenomena in Plasma Astrophysics, are the 'Primer Fields'. They were named so by one of its researchers, David LaPoint.
The basic principles are simple. When an electric current flows in the same direction in two parallel wires, magnetic fields form around the wires that interact and draw the wires towards each other. The attracting force is called the Lorentz Force.
The same mutual attraction also happens in space when streams of electrically charged particles flow in the same direction. Their movement too, forms magnetic fields around them that draws the moving electric particles, termed plasma, towards each other. The effect in space is that the cross section of the plasma streams becomes smaller. Of course, the compression of plasma into a smaller space increases the effective magnetic field effect. As the result of it, the cross section of the moving plasma becomes smaller and smaller. The plasma becomes more concentrated thereby.
Eventually the plasma particles flow so steeply towards each other that the magnetic fields change direction to the point that the plasma effectively flows backwards and becomes concentrated within the space of a magnetic structure that David LaPoint has named the Confinement Dome.
The magnetic forces that form the Confinement Dome also leave a magnetic void below the dome through which a stream of extremely concentrated plasma escapes and flows on.
In addition, when the plasma pressure under the dome exceeds the magnetic confinement strength, the dome is breached at its weakest point, at the top center. Where the dome is breached, excess plasma escapes. On the Sun, the escaping plasma becomes the solar wind that flows away from the surface of the Sun.
David LaPoint named the magnetic structure that flips the inflowing plasma and forces it under the confinement dome, the Flip Ring. He also discovered another magnetic structure that keeps the outflow below the dome concentrated, which he named the Choke Ring.
The now super-dense plasma that gets past the Choke Ring, typically flows towards a sun that is a sphere of plasma itself, as our Sun is, and all stars are.
The highly concentrated stream of plasma, in turn, that becomes focused onto the Sun, forms a dense shell of plasma around it that interacts with the Plasma Sun on its surface, and powers its solar actions.
On the surface of the Sun, below the plasma shell, the dense plasma is further concentrated by a sea of 'smaller' Primer Fields. By these, under extreme pressure, atomic elements are being synthesized from the electrons and protons of the inflowing, super-concentrated plasma stream. The synthesized atomic structures become so highly energized by the process that forms them, that they emit large volumes of light and heat in, the form of photons. That's how the Sun becomes an energy-radiating star.
Whatever portion of the inflowing plasma is not consumed by the Sun, flows on and away from it. With the flow now being weaker, the still concentrated plasma expands again through complimentary, reverse acting, magnetic structures. It becomes an interstellar plasma stream again that flows on to the next Sun while it gathers up plasma along the way.
This is in principle how the Sun operates as a Plasma Star, seen in broad terms, as numerous forms of evidence suggest.
David LaPoint studied the plasma solar dynamics with static experiments in the laboratory, utilizing permanent magnets for a part of the Primer Fields, because it takes very large currents flowing, for electromagnetic Primer Fields to form. The conditions for it are difficult to achieve in the laboratory, which only large laboratories have been able to muster, with the result shown at the upper right.
The difficult feat was accomplished at the Los Alamos National Laboratory under the Director of Experiments, Anthony Peratt.
A high-energy electric discharge experiment yielded the flow phenomenon shown here. Because plasma is normally invisible, its interaction with a background of gases did reveal the otherwise invisible. In this case the interaction revealed the plasma flow geometry. It revealed the forming of a set of complementary Primer Fields, connected by a thin stream of super-concentrated plasma that forms an energetic ring around itself by which it dissipates some of the energy of the thin stream that thereby expands again and forms the complementary reverse-flow pattern.
A similar, visible phenomenon has been found in space. It is operating in a very large form as the Red Square Nebula.
If one looks closer, one can see both the Flip Ring and the Choke Ring faintly apparent in the nebula. It also reflects functionally the more energetic dynamic, laboratory experiment.
Another example of operating Primer Fields has recently been discovered by NASA, this time operating on the galactic scale. The evidence has been detected faintly 'glowing' in x-ray and gamma-ray light. The discovered feature has the shape of two complimentary Confinement Domes. The magnetic-field structures of the in-and-out-flowing plasma streams, however, is too weak to be visible.
David LaPoint seems to suggest that these structures are likely extremely large.
The resulting flat, disk-like form of the galaxy reveals that the primer fields on the galactic scale do exist, are gigantic in scale, and do have a major effect on the Earth and on our living.
That our Sun has plasma flowing unto it, by a set of primer fields that are too faint to be visible, had been made apparent recently by the measurements produced by the NASA/ESA spacecraft, Ulysses, during its three polar orbits around the Sun, between 1994 and 2008. The spacecraft had measured the solar-wind pressure around the Sun, and had encountered a void in the out-flowing solar wind over each of the Sun's poles. The voids were measured in precisely the location where the in-flowing and out-flowing plasma streams from the Primer Fields would be located. We find evidence in this that our Sun is a Plasma Star, and that the Primer Fields that focus plasma onto it, do exist.
Another form of evidence that the Primer Fields for the Sun do exist, is found in the climate on Earth when the Primer Fields break down. That's when an Ice Age occurs. Primer Fields are magnetic structures that can break down when the in-flowing plasma stream falls below a minimal threshold in density. When the Primer Fields break down, the Sun is no longer surrounded by a high-density plasma shell. As a consequence, solar action diminishes dramatically. With the plasma streams still flowing loosely around the Sun, the Sun continues to shine, but with 70% less radiated energy flowing from it.
Under an only 30% active Sun, the Earth gets cold and experiences an Ice Age. The Sun goes into a long hibernation, as it were, until the plasma density exceeds the threshold for the Primer Fields to form anew. This will likely happen in 90,000 years from now. At this point the Ice Age ends once more.
The actions of the Primer Fields have this type of dramatic effect, that severely affects us all. And it will affect us in the 2050s when the turn-of threshold is crossed and the Primer Fields collapse
Are we prepared for the long cold spell of an Ice Age under the then, once again, hibernating, 30% Sun? The answer is presently NO! The NO answer makes the Primer Fields one of the most critical issues of our time with consequences that no one can escape. However, we could avoid the consequences by building us a new world along the Equator, with technological indoors agriculture, located afloat onto the seas.
But will we do it? The present answer remains a resounding NO! This answer must be changed to YES! Everything depends on the Yes, including our future existence.