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** Neutron Star Paradoxes
With 2 Up-quarks (+2/3) and 1 Down-quark (-1/3) the unit becomes a Proton with the electric potential of +1 (+2/3 and +2/3 and -1/3 = +1) (it is electrically active) Subject to change by external influence
With 1 Up-quark (+2/3) and 2 Down-quarks (-1/3) the unit becomes a Neutron with the electric potential of zero (+2/3 and -1/3 and -1/3 = 0) (it is electrically neutral)
Electrons are Leptons (similar to Quarks) with an electric potential of -1
By the action of the electric force, like electric potentials repel each other, and unlike electric potentials attract each other.
It is well understood that neutrons do not exist naturally. They exist nowhere in isolated form. They are the product of a process that creates the environment that enables their existence. Neutrons do not exist anywhere in the universe outside of this environment. This environment is created with the investment of energy.
A neutron is formed inside an atomic nucleus when two protons are forced to join there. For this joining, a large amount of energy is required.
There exist only two basic atomic particles in the universe, the electron and the proton. Both have an electric quality with which they interact. The electron has a negative electric quality, and the proton, which is 1800 times larger, has a positive quality. Particles of unlike quality are attracted to one-another by the electric force, and particles of like quality repel one another. The entire universe is built on this principle. The electric force is an immense force. It is believed to be 39 orders of magnitude stronger than gravity. It is the creative force of the universe.
By this force, electrons are attracted to protons, but before they can latch onto each other, the electron is repelled at close distance by an even stronger basic nuclear force. Once repelled, it becomes attracted again, by which the dance begins anew. When the dance is highly energetic, the dance of the electron effectively forms a shell of its presence around the proton, by which an atom is born, the simplest atom that exists; the hydrogen atom. Of course, we also need bigger atoms, and lots of different types of the to h ve the amazing universe that we have.
For all of these bigger types of atoms to exist, we need a bigger nucleus. We need more protons packed together to create the larger nuclei. The tight packaging, however, shouldn't be possible, because all protons repel each other with the electric force.
The electric repelling force of protons, against one-another, is immense.
It takes an immense kinetic force to counteract the electric repelling force.
When this is accomplished, the joining energy transforms one of the protons into a neutron. The neutron has its electric charge neutralized in the process. It also acts like a type of nuclear 'glue' that enables the attachment of another proton to it.
The 'fussy glue' effect creates the basis for very large atomic nuclei to exist.
The uranium atom, for example, has 92 protons co-exist in its nucleus, held together with the glue of 146 neutrons. The resulting extremely large nucleus enables the dance of 92 electrons, organized in seven layers of complex arrangements of shells of orbital spaces.
When this atom is broken apart in such a manner that not all of its neutrons are required anymore as glue, the excess neutron splits off. The release of the neutron also releases the original binding energy that created the neutron. The released neutron thereby decays back to becoming a proton again.
A neutron exists dynamically as a part of a nuclear-force-held package that provides the environment for its existence. Outside this environment it lacks the force that shapes it. It becomes a proton again. Stable forms of unbound neutrons simply have no basis for existing. And what can't exist, doesn't exist. Thus, the phenomenon of entire stars made up of isolated neutrons is not possible. Consequently, it doesn't exist.
The neutron star is only possible in dreams. Here, the neutron paradox begins.
Protons are constructed of subatomic particles, called quarks. Quarks exist in two flavours, often referred to as Up-quarks and Down-quarks. The UP-quarks have a positive electric quality, and the Down-quarks a negative electric quality. The combination of two Up and one Down quarks gives the protons its positive electric 'charge', illustrated as +1.
The electron, in turn, is made up of a tiny subatomic particle, called the Lepton, which carries its negative 'charge' or negative potential, illustrated as -1.
When a fast-moving proton collides with another proton inside an atomic element, the collision creates a binding force that alters one of the quarks in one of the colliding protons. It converts one of the Up-quarks into a Down-quark that cancels out the over-all electric potential. By this latching effect that cancels its electric potential, a proton becomes a neutron. It remains a neutron for as long as it remains attached to the proton, being held in place by the strong nuclear force. When the attachment is broken, the basis for the existence of the neutron ends.
The neutron paradox begins with the denial of this fact. It begins with the imagining of magical forces and magical condition which which mainstream science attempts to rationalize observed cosmic phenomena that are created by electrons and protons existing in cosmic space in unbound form, constituting 99.999% of the mass of the universe, strongly interacting in space with the electric force that is 39 orders of magnitude stronger than gravity.
The theory of the neutron star is required to rationalize a concept of the universe in which gravity, the weakest force in the universe, is the sole governing force and cause for everything. The neutron-star concept is imagined, even though no basis for the concept actually exists, or can exist according to what is known. The resulting commitment to the impossible creates a paradox. It creates a paradox of denial. And more than that, it creates evermore convoluted paradoxes upon the basic paradox of denial. Some are rather obviously paradoxes.
Paradox 1: Mainstream science stands in defiance of the basic fact that what can't exist, doesn't exist. Thus, astrophysical science is dreaming of entire stars existing composed of isolated neutrons. The dream defies the recognized theoretical impossibility that is well understood. That's a paradox, isn't it?
From this basic paradox, other paradoxes are conjured up.
Paradox 2: Science imagines that neutron stars of immense density are possible, with such immense gravity that they effectively bent space in a manner that they become invisible, and the universe becomes invisible from them, so that no light can cross between them.
The immense mass density of the neutron star is theorized to be possible, because the neutron lacks the electrical repulsion that limits the density of atomic forms and the mass of stars.
The imagined super-large mass of the neutron star is required as a fudge factor for the recognition of cosmic features that are deemed to require large concentrations of mass, such as the theorized black holes at the center of galaxies, that are said to have the gravitational densities that far exceed what can result from amassed atomic elements.
The impossible neutron star is imagined, while science stands in denial of cosmic plasma physics and its known principles that cause a wide range of mass-density to exists naturally. That's a paradox, isn't it?
With his paradox of defiance, mainstream science locks itself into a box of dreams. The neutron paradox has been created to enable this denial of the truth.
Paradox 3: Likewise, it is a recognized fact that gravity-bound orbital systems do not decay, unless their kinetic energy is diminished by an external cause, such as by cosmic drag.
In defiance of this widely recognized fact, astrophysical science dreams of fast orbiting black holes with 30 times the mass of the Sun, to have their kinetic energy drained away in half a second, so that they spiral into each other. There is no physical cause possible for this gigantic loss of kinetic energy to occur in the fraction of a second.
In this paradox, the neutron stars are imagined to be exempt from the laws of orbital dynamics. The exemption is imagined to rationalize the observed phenomena, even while the observed effects that are attributed to neutron stars, are inherently natural in the plasma universe, which however is deemed not to exist.
Here again, the paradox allows an imaginary escape from facing reality.
Paradox 4: In dreaming of the impossible, science also imagines the neutron star to have a magical electric quality, which it cannot have as an electrically neutral mass.
The neutron star is imagined to generate an immense magnetic field that powers jet streams flowing from the star, all in defiance of the basic fact that magnetic phenomena are generated by the movement of electric currents that an electrically neutral mass cannot and does not facilitate.
Paradox 5: Science also imagines Black-Holes neutron stars to emit pulses of immense radiation as the result of their axial rotation, in the order of one pulse per rotation.
Since nothing but gravity is deemed to escape the event-horizon of a black hole, the mass of the star within it must necessarily rotate with an impossibly extreme mass-eccentricity, to be able to generate rotating gravity pulses that act on surrounding materials with effects that are 'visible' across the galaxy in the form of gamma-ray light, the most intense form of light.
This is the theory of the pulsar. The theory, again, is invented to rationalize cosmic effects that are inherently natural in the plasma universe and have no other cause than that, so that in denial of the natural cause, which is deemed not to exist, exotic dreams are invented to rationale the observed effects without science having to acknowledge their actual cause. The trap creates the paradox.
But why would one need to resort to dreaming impossible dreams, when rational solutions are at hand to solve all of these paradoxes?
Cosmic plasma, by being motivated with the electromagnetic force that is 39 order of magnitude stronger than gravity and has an infinite range, has the potential to cause all the types of phenomena that have been observed, from gamma-ray light effects, pulsing and otherwise,
all the way to the theorized ripples in the plenum of space that have been observed by the LIGO and Virgo observatories.
Why doesn't humanity step out of its long-cherished constricting box of the impossible, convoluted dreaming, and look at the real universe where the observed effects in the universe are inherently possible as simple plasma-flow phenomena?
By stepping out of the box of mythical science-dreaming, the paradoxes of the neutron stars become resolved, including the paradox of the super-massive Black-Hole stars that are imagined to exist at the center of galaxies.