(01 The wide scene of Ice Age historic evidence )
The wide scene of Ice Age historic evidence speaks to us of a solar system that is powered by an electric Sun that is inherently a variable sun.
Since all the measured Ice Age evidence contradicts the accepted theory about the nature of the Sun, the time has come to explore what is really happening. We need a theory that supports the known evidence. We need it, in order that we stop lying to ourselves. This necessarily includes the way we regard the solar system, because the Sun and the solar system are an integrated whole. Since the long accepted theory of the internal-fusion sun is wrong, let's scrap it as a construct of delusions, no matter how challenging this surrendering may seem. The delusions reflect the notion that only gravity rules in the cosmic universe.
(02 Cosmic universe is ruled by a much greater force )
The evidence tells us that the cosmic universe is ruled by a much greater force, which is the electric force, that is as powerfully evident on the cosmic scale as it is on the atomic scale. Not a single atom would exist without the electric force being expressed by its principles.
(03 The ecliptic phenomenon is expected )
In a similar manner, a solar system would not exist if its operating principles did not exist, which are electric principles. No gravity-mass principle exists, or is possible, that would, for example, dictate that the planets in a solar system must orbit orderly together in a 'thin' ecliptic plane.
In the electric universe, of course, the ecliptic phenomenon is expected. It is actually rather simple there.
(04 Saturn's rings are made of water ice )
Let us look at a simple example, such as the case of Saturn that has a strongly visible system of rings that is perfectly aligned with the planet's equator. Saturn's rings are made primarily of water ice. Why would these rings be aligned with the planet's equator. The rings extend from 6,630 km to 120,700 km from the planet, but are extremely thin comparatively, at an average thickness of only 20 meters. But what keeps this sheet so perfectly flat? The answer is located in electrodynamics.
(05 The ecliptic phenomenon )
The phenomenon has been experimentally verified in high-power electric-flow experiments. The ecliptic phenomenon is not possible on any other platform than the electromagnetic platform. With the planets being bombarded with the solar wind that consists to a large degree of protons, the planets and all its moons and whatever interstellar material it attracts, becomes proton-rich. It thereby gains an electric charge. This means that a repelling force acts against the material of the rings from above and from below in such a manner that the repelling forces balance each other. And since the planet is spinning, the movement of the protons in the plant surface creates a moving electric field that becomes electromagnetically coupled into the orbiting ring system and planets.
(06 The thin disk of the galactic plane )
The same principle also creates the thin disk of the galactic plane. No other known principle would be capable of squishing an entire galaxy of 400 billion stars into a thin flat disk. Our galaxy, the Milky Way Galaxy is roughly 100,000 light years wide and 1,000 light years thick, a 100 to one ratio. The missing element that would cause the flattening of the galaxy into a thin disk, has only recently been discovered.
(07 Two plasma confinement domes of the Primer Fields )
The recently discovered element consists of two plasma confinement domes of the Primer Fields for the galaxy, which stand like giant towers above and below the galaxy. These structures span 25,000 light years in each direction. These giant fields of concentrated intergalactic plasma, are extremely proton-rich. The principle of the electric repulsion, acting from above and below, appears to force the stars into a vast ecliptic disk, as one of the principles involved. The principle appears to be identical to the principle that creates the ecliptic rings around planets. The electric ecliptic principle appears to be so universally manifest that it applies almost everywhere in cosmic space where the requisite conditions exist. Obviously, the same principle also applies to the planetary ecliptic of the solar system where similar electric characteristics of the Primer Fields apply as on the galactic level, which focus a large sphere of plasma around the Sun.
(08 Exceedingly puzzling in entropic cosmology )
All of this means that the entire universe is electromagnetically organized. Every major feature that we see in the cosmos, especially those that appear exceedingly puzzling in entropic cosmology, is evidently electromagnetically produced, without exception, illustrating that the universe is anti-entropic in nature.
A part of the proof of the principle is found in the fact that the electric ecliptic principle is reflected equally in the very large scale on the galactic level, as it is on the very small scale, as in the case of the planets' ring systems.
(09 The moons of the planets )
All of the big gas planets in our solar system have ring structures, not only Saturn. Most are less visible, as they are of lesser density. However, regardless of the density of the rings, in each case, the ecliptic disk is aligned with the planets' equator, and in each case the moons of the planets orbit within this tightly confined ecliptic plane.
(10 The rings of Jupiter are fainter )
On Jupiter, a number of moons are directly a part of the ring structure. The rings of Jupiter are fainter than those of Saturn as they are made of fine dust, but they do exist.
(11 The rings of Uranus )
The universal ecliptic principle is also evident in the rings of Uranus. Even though the planet has an extremely backwards tilted spin axis, the plane of the rings tilts with the spin axis and remains equatorial. Most of the moons of Uranus orbit within the ring system itself.
(12 The rings of Neptune are still fainter )
The rings of Neptune are still fainter. But they do exist. They have been photographed by satellites. Evidence also exists that suggests that a similar electromagnetic coupling, than the one that drives the ring system, also powers the movements of the big storms in the gas planets' atmosphere. Neptune holds the record in this category. It features the strongest storms in the solar system, even while it is the farthest away from the Sun
(13 Neptune is the most distant planet )
Neptune is the most distant planet of the solar system. It is 30 times as far from the Sun than is the Earth, and it is nearly 4 times larger. It has 14 moons, the largest is named Triton.
(14 The coldest object found in the solar system )
This moon is the coldest object found in the solar system with temperatures in the range of minus 235 degrees Celsius - a mere 38 degrees above absolute zero. Ironically, its cold parent-planet features winds measured up to 2,100 kilometers an hour. How is this possible? The Neptune system is so far distant from the Sun that it gets almost no solar heat.
(15 Supersonic air movement )
Storms shouldn't be happening at all on Neptune. What would power the storms then, when Neptune's upper atmosphere is stone cold, at minus 218 degrees Celsius? What gigantic power source, powers the violent, supersonic air movement on the planet at up to 2,100 kilometers an hour? Storms of this gigantic magnitude can only happen in this icy landscape when they are of electric origin, rather than being a thermal phenomenon.
Oddly, the key to the answer to what powers the storms lies in the orbital distance of Neptune from the Sun.
(16 By the principle of magnetohydrodynamics )
At the extreme distance of Neptune's orbit, the solar winds have likely slowed enough so that Neptune gets a larger dose of its protons than any of the other planets. The larger dose renders the planet more electrically active. Depending on the solar wind fluctuations, the winds on Neptune can be driven to exceptionally high speeds by the principle of magnetohydrodynamics, causing atmospheric movement far in excess of the surface rotation of the planet.
(17 Something makes Saturn special )
A principle of relationships comes to light when one compares the storm speeds for the planets with the planets' distance. The measured storm speed increases with distance, which would correspond with increased proton density on the planets. Only Saturn doesn't follow the pattern. Something makes Saturn special.
(18 Saturn's exceptional storms )
Saturn's exceptional storms, for its closer position, appears to be due to Saturn being located at a distance where the external magnetic fields, from the Primer Fields, are extremely weak. This renders Saturn the only planet whose effective magnetic field coincides almost perfectly with its dynamo magnetic field. Its effective deflection is a mere 7-tenth of a degree, even while the spin axis of the planet is strongly tilted at 29 degrees. Under such conditions, with almost no external field interfering, Saturn appears to be able to attract larger volumes of solar wind, which gives the planet a richer proton density across its surface. In this case, the storm front is moving against the rotation of the planet, exceeding its fast rotational speed.
(19 Saturn's exceptionally strong polar aurora )
The resulting larger, proton inflow, from the solar wind, is also likely the cause for Saturn's exceptionally strong polar aurora.
(20 Aurora phenomenon on Jupiter )
The aurora phenomenon that is visible on Saturn, on both poles, is similarly visible on Jupiter, only to a lesser degree, comparatively.
(21 Jupiter's storms are nevertheless gigantic )
This weaker plasma influx on Jupiter is likely the cause for its 'weaker' storms, which are nevertheless strong as we see them encircling the planet. Though the move with less than supersonic speeds, Jupiter's storms are nevertheless gigantic storms by Earth standards with speeds, in the 360 kilometre per hour range, reaching upward to 600 kilometers per hour.
(22 Jupiter is a cold planet )
The storms on Jupiter, of course, are likewise not caused by solar thermal influx. Jupiter is a cold planet with extremely weak solar energy input that heats the planet to a maximum temperature, at the cloud surface, of minus 108 degrees Celsius. Nevertheless, in the ultra violet image that is shown here, the polar regions, which should be colder, show up as being 'warmer' due to the planet's attraction of electric energy from nearby space, by its large gravity and strong magnetic field. The light band at the equator indicates that strong electric interaction is taking place there, right at the equator, where the electric system interacts with the ring system. This is also the region where the strongest cloud movement on Jupiter is occurring.
(23 Aurora on Earth are relatively weak )
The aurora on Earth are relatively weak, except in times of coronal mass ejections that are extraordinary events, which fall into a different category than the steady background aurora. This means that electric events that we see on Earth, follow the same pattern that we see expressed in principle throughout the solar system. Nor is the universality of electric evidence surprising, as the entire solar system itself is the product of electric actions on the Sun that synthesized all the atomic elements for the planets of the solar system in the first place. We can't get away from the fact that the creative, electric force of action is the organizing force in the universe, including in our galaxy, and in our solar system within it.
(24 Perpetual motion machines are not possible )
It is self-evident by looking at the various types of electric evidence that we would not have a planetary system orbiting our Sun, if the orbits of the planets were not electromagnetically assisted in their orbital motions. In physical mechanics perpetual motion machines are not possible. Every mechanistic system is inherently entropic in nature, meaning that it winds itself down by energy depletion like a wind-up toy spends the energy invested into it. But this is not how a solar system operates. It does not diminish.
Our technological satellites that are orbiting the Earth, are all entropic systems. The satellites are doomed to fall back to earth as their kinetic energy is drained away by their encountering plasma in space, and atomic elements flowing in the solar winds. Every satellite is doomed thereby, unless its orbit is actively assisted by re-boosting. The same physical entropy applies also to the planets. Every planet, regardless of its size, ploughs through fields of plasma interwoven with atoms and molecules which drain its kinetic energy . The loss of energy would de-orbit the planets over time if the energy drain was not compensated by an offsetting active force. The amazing stability of the solar system, that has been spanning billions of years, speaks to us of powerful electromagnetic assistance being constantly applied., which provides for its stability. This means that the entire solar system is actively powered. Nothing happens passively here. Everything happens actively in the solar system for as long as the solar system itself remains powered.
Here is where our vulnerability begins, because our Sun is a mediocre small star among the stars in the galaxy. Its size is typical for a weak plasma environment. This environment is presently diminishing towards a point at which the Sun will become inactive completely, as it apparently has through 85% of the last million years of the current Ice Age Epoch.
But before we can explore our weakening Sun system, lets look at the big star systems for comparison.
(25 In the Cat's Eye nebula )
Images like these are often deemed to be the result of an exploding star, or a partial explosion that 'liberates' vast quantities of its atomic gases and materials. But is this true? In the electric universe were planets are formed from atomic materials that have been synthesized at the surface of a sun, for which ample evidence exists, one doesn't require exploding stars as a source for the glowing atomic materials that nebulas are made of. One only requires a large star and large plasma flows being focused on it. In the Cat's Eye nebula, about 3300 light-years away from the Earth, the central star there is believed to be smaller in radius than our Sun, but is 10,000 times as luminous than the Sun is.
This 'miracle', all by itself, is not possible under the entropic-sun theory. A sun operating at a temperature of approximately 80,000 degrees, in comparison with the 5,500 degrees of our Sun, while this sun has half the mass, is not even imaginable under the gravity-forced fusion theory. The 10,000 times more active star in the nebula is proof that we live in an electric universe. It is self-evident too, that the heating of the surrounding material, which is heated to 9,000 degrees, and remains heated with out diminishment, is not residual heat that would remain for but a moment, but is actively heated by inflowing plasma interacting with atomic materials in the solar winds. Even the solar winds itself, moving at speeds in excess of 1,900 kilometers per second, would not provide this tremendous active heating. It is estimated that the solar winds in this nebula, carry atomic material away from its sun at a rate of 20 trillion tons per second. The energy and mass for this enormous rate of nuclear-fusion synthesis is derived from cosmic sources, cosmic plasma, flowing into the nebula, and to its sun.
(26 Some light nuclear fusion synthesis )
The synthesized material that spreads continuously outward across a wide area until it drifts out of the range of the plasma currents to illumine it, is not derived from a small star shedding its skin, but is electrically formed. Some light nuclear fusion synthesis may also be happening in the plasma streams themselves, by the plasma that powers their luminance. This, however, is merely a theory.
(27 Researcher David LaPoint regards a nebula )
The plasma researcher David LaPoint regards a nebula on the scale of the Cat's Eye nebula, to be the focal point of correspondingly large structures of Primer Fields, as he has illustrated here in principle. This principle evidently applies to nebulas of all sizes, all the way up to the largest galaxies.
(28 The famous Crab nebula )
A somewhat larger nebula, than the Cat's Eye nebula, though of essentially the same type, is the famous Crab nebula. The nebula may have started with the convergence of large plasma streams that gave rise to the birth of a powerful star that is still ongoing. The nebula is sometimes referred to as a cosmic "generator" that is producing energy at the rate of 100,000 suns combined.
(29 The entire galaxy is in motion. )
Plasma streams in space are constantly in motion as this plasma sphere as a toy illustrates. The entire galaxy is in motion.
(30 The plasma streams in the galaxies )
The plasma streams in the galaxies are always twisting, sometimes breaking, sometimes reconnecting.
(31 Stars cannot explode )
When large streams converge, large events happen, even explosive events that are termed supernova events. These events are not powered by exploding stars. Since stars are inherently spheres of plasma, as gas spheres of the size of stars cannot exist, stars cannot explode, because plasma spheres do not explode. Supernova events are therefore merely large plasma-convergence events.
(32 A puff of smoke )
Some of the big flashy plasma events are actually successful in creating stars. The Cat's Eye nebula is evidently an example. Some lesser events, however, are clearly not extensive enough to meet the minimal threshold requirement, and end up as but a puff of smoke.
(33 Smoke from the supernova 1987A )
A somewhat larger puff of smoke resulted from the supernova 1987A. But it too, fell short of what is needed to create a star. Still, the case is interesting as evidence that we live in an electric universe.
A burst of neutrinos from the so-called supernova reached the Earth on February 23, 1987, followed by a bright light three hours later. It is believed that the neutrino emission resulted from the core collapse inside a star. It is theorized that the emission of light was delayed, as it occurs only after the resulting shock wave reaches the stellar surface that rips the planet apart. However, it is far more likely that the neutrino emissions occurred simultaneous with the transition of light, because in a plasma event they would have occurred together, so that the measured time gap reflects a minute difference in propagation speeds.
(34 Light is slowed by denser media )
Light is slowed by denser media, as its electromagnetic fields are compressed. Over long distances, the compression results in a measurable difference in propagation time. Interstellar gases, intergalactic plasma streams, all would have this effect that slows the propagation of light, while nothing that we know of affects the propagation of neutrinos.
The time-gap between the arrival on Earth of the neutrino burst, and the light burst, is surprisingly small if one considers that the light from the supernova had been propagated for 168,000 years. The light originated in a nearby galaxy named ' the Large Magellanic Cloud.' It evidently encountered a wide range of denser media on the way.
If the explosion theory was true, the time-difference would have been vastly larger. The internal fusion-sun theory states that it takes photons, the carriers of light, more than 10,000 years, up to 170,000 years, to make their way to the surface of a star, from the core, because of the volume of obstacles along the way. With this in mind, it takes a big leap of faith to accept that a shockwave can rip through the same, more than a million kilometers of material, and create a burst of light that arrives on Earth only 3 hours delayed from the neutrino burst that is supposed to have started the shockwave.
(35 A tell-tale image )
However, the big proof that we live in a plasma universe is located in the ring of lights surrounding the nova event. The ring of lights is a tell-tale image that reveals the sheer size and intensity of the plasma currents in interstellar space. The currents became visible with the 'smoke' from the synthesizing fusion getting in the way of the plasma current, by which the current becomes visible. High energy physics experiments have revealed that intense plasma currents form 56 filaments of currents, that later combine into 28 filaments, electromagnetically arranged into a tube with the cross section of a circle.. We see a large scale example, here, existing in space, with a nova event located in the center of it. The ring of plasma filaments evidently pinched and provided the plasma current for the nova event at the very center of it. It is rare that one encounters such clearly visible evidence that supernova events are electric events.
(36 Electric-universe supernova events )
The Crab nebula resulted from an evidently still larger plasma event that left behind a lot of 'smoke' to become visible in the plasma current streams. The Crab nebula is for this reason one of the most studied objects in the sky, but it is studied from the false theoretical basis of it being an entropic object, which it cannot be.
Its start-up may have been seen in 1054 A.D. in the form of a supernova. Since in the electric-universe supernova events are nothing more than large plasma discharge events - a type of galactic 'lightening' - the events are typically short-lived, on average for a few months, but the large ones like the Crab tend to be maintained thereafter by the plasma streams that had originally caused them in the first place. The tangle of the Crab's atomic filaments are actively maintained at temperatures in the range between 11,000 and 18,000 degrees, by plasma flowing through the system. If the Crab was not actively maintained it would have gone dark long ago. In fact, it may be dark again already. The Crab is roughly 6,500 light years distant and measures slightly over 13 light years across. The light that is seen in the photograph was emitted long before civilization had begun on earth . We see an electric light show presented here, of large proportions, but nothing more than that. Still, what we see puzzles researchers.
(37 The Crab a pulsar )
What is deemed the central star of the Crab nebula is located deep within the nebula itself. It emits pulses of radiation across the entire radiation spectrum, from gamma rays, to radio waves. The radiation is pulsating at a rate of 30.2 times per second. The Crab has been termed, a pulsar, for this feature.
(38 A neutron star is physically impossible )
Because the Crab's central star is seen being located at the focal point of a circular cloud, it has been theorized in entropic cosmology that the Crab Pulsar is the collapsed remnant of a star explosion that has left in its wake a neutron sphere 28 to 30 km across, with a spin rate of 1812 revolutions per minute. It is said that its fast rotating magnetic field causes pulsating havoc in the surrounding gases.
The problem with this theory is, that neutrons cannot exist by themselves, much less exist as stars. When neutrons become split off from their bond with protons, they decay back into being protons and become electrically active again. This means that a neutron star is physically impossible, and this includes all the derivatives of the theory, such as black holes, and so on. Nor would a neutron star have a magnetic field. Neutrons are electrically neutral. Only the movement of electric currents forms magnetic fields. This means that the pulsar is something much simpler than it is made out to be - something that is actually physically possible.
(39 A pulsating system that generates high-energy bursts )
It is well recognized in plasma physics that when plasma is concentrated under the magnetic confinement dome of a Primer Field, and the plasma pressure is increased, a portion of the pressurized plasma breaches the magnetic confinement in a jet-like stream, by which the internal pressure weakens till the magnetic confinement shuts the flow off. At this point the pressure builds up again. The result is a pulsating system that generates high-energy bursts of concentrated plasma, that expands by the electric repulsion inherent in plasma.
(40 The apparent star in the Crab )
The circular cloud would be located within the plasma focus of the Primer Fields system. The apparent star in the Crab may not be an actual star then, but be merely the breakout point of concentrated plasma, through the confinement dome. This principle of plasma escaping the magnetic confinement dome of Primer Fields is evident everywhere. In our solar system, at the 'very small' level, we see it as the cause for the solar wind.
(41 In the Eagle Nebula )
On the cosmic scale, however, the giant Crab nebula is nevertheless still a relatively small nebula. In the Eagle Nebula the brightest star - of a cluster of 460 large stars - is all by itself a million times more luminous than our Sun.
And this star 'smokes' profusely as an atom-synthesizing nuclear fusion engine. The star is located behind the tip of the leftmost pillar of synthesized atomic material. The star is said to be 80 times as massive as our Sun.
The other pillars, too, have a large star located behind their top, likewise, which are similarly active. What you see here is only possible in an electrically powered universe.
(42 Named the Pillars of Creation )
The three pillars themselves, named the Pillars of Creation, as huge as they seem with their million-times brighter sun behind each of them, are nevertheless but a small part of the larger sphere of the nebula that contains a number of extremely large features, including a large cluster of giant stars.
(43 The gigantic features are barely recognized )
And even the gigantic features are barely recognized when the nebula is seen as a whole, that is roughly 140 by 110 light years in size and is located roughly 7000 light-years distant.
(44 At the focal point of a single large Primer Field )
The entire giant nebula may lay at the focal point of a single large Primer Field that powers the entire complex as a single unit, with multiple secondary fields operating at the local regions within.
(45 In the electric universe )
In the electric universe, the operating principle is seen coming to light everywhere, and it is seen as being scaled upwards to almost any imaginable size, even to power an entire galaxy..
(46 Intergalactic plasma streams )
The discovered plasma structures are the 'visible' confinement domes of the the galactic size Primer Fields that concentrate and interface the intergalactic plasma streams that feed into and through the galaxy. The focusing of the Primer Fields creates a dense plasma halo around the entire galaxy.
(47 Globular star clusters in the halo )
The plasma concentration flowing through the halo is evidently dense enough to support a number of globular star clusters in the halo.
(48 Spherical amalgamation of stars )
Star clusters are spherical amalgamation of stars that are typically up to 100-times more densely packed together than the stars in the neighbourhood of the Earth.
(49 Globular star clusters )
The fact that the globular star clusters are almost completely free of dust and gases, can be seen as evidence that large networks of strong plasma currents flow through the halo region and sweeps up and disperses the solar synthesized atoms across the halo and the galaxy,
(50 Intergalactic plasma streams resonance )
The intergalactic plasma streams that connect the Milky Way with the rest of the universe, have of course an electric resonance, each with a different resonance beat. We see the evidence of the two beats coming together reflected on Earth in the form of two long climate cycles overlaid on one-another. We see a long 144 million years, strongly dominant, climate cycle evident, which is modulated with a less dominant 62 million years cycle.
(51 Between the Milky Way and Andromeda )
The 62 million years cycle is likely the plasma resonance cycle between the Milky Way and the Andromeda galaxy that is 2.5 million light-years distant.
(52 The longer and more dominant climate cycle )
The longer and more dominant climate cycle is likely the resonance cycle between the Milky Way and the much larger M83 galaxy and its associated group of galaxies slightly over 10 million light-years distant.
(53 The combination of two resonance effects )
The combination of the two resonance effects has brought the entire Milky Way galaxy into an epoch of galaxy-wide weak electric conditions, which are presently at the weakest point of the last 450 million years. The weakening has become so severe that the modern epoch of the Ice Ages has begun, roughly two million years ago, which also coincides with the dawn of humanity.
(54 The entire development of mankind )
The entire development of mankind occurred during the epoch of the Ice Ages that consist of long glaciation cycles that get interrupted briefly with warm interglacial periods, like the one that we are presently in, which is about to end.
(55 Our Sun is a rather mediocre one )
The Earth is vulnerable, because our Sun is not a particularly strong star, nor is the solar system located in a particularly strong plasma environment.
Our Sun is a rather mediocre one among generally small stars that one finds located in thinly populated region of the galaxy where we are located. Evidence suggests that the electromagnetic Primer Fields that focus plasma onto our Sun are fast nearing the threshold point of collapse where the Sun goes inactive and the long-term normal glaciation climate begins anew.
(56 Through the last glaciation period )
That the glaciation climate is a harsh climate is reflected in the fact that through the last glaciation period spanning 90,000 years, only 1 to 10 million people had managed to survive, worldwide. It took us a long time afterwards to recover and build up the man-created infrastructures for expanded human living. We now face the challenge to maintain ourselves as a large population through the next harsh period, and nor become devastated again.
Yes, 1 to 10 million people was the entire world population that existed at the end of the last Ice Age after more than two million years of the human journey. That's what we are getting back into, in potentially 30 years time. That's the challenge.
(57 Plasma streams between the stars Sirius and Vega )
Our star, the Sun, may be more vulnerable than we wish to believe, whereby we are vulnerable too. This is likely so, because our solar system appears to be connected, electrically, to two somewhat smaller neighbour stars, named Epsilon Erandi and Tau Ceti, that are 10.5 and 12 light years distant, respectively. We may also be influenced by the stronger plasma streams between the stars Sirius and Vega, depending on which orientation is the most perpendicular to the planetary ecliptic. It is physically not possible to make exact determinations, based on measurements, because of the large distances involved.
Our Sun itself is not a strong giant either. It is one of the many mediocre stars in the local neighbourhood, and thereby one of the more vulnerable ones to the weakening electric conditions. Since interstellar plasma currents are inherently invisible, and too distant to be measured, the critical details of the interstellar electric connections that evidently do exist, are obviously open to a lot of speculation. We can at best only 'measure' their existence by their effects on the solar system, and thereby on the Earth. Fortunately, quite a number of these effects can be measured.