(01 Electrodynamic causes )
In considering the Ice Age cycles, a critical factor comes into play, which is centered on the nature of dynamics. The question is, are we looking at mechanistic causes for the Ice Age cycles, or electrodynamic causes?
(02 The nature of mechanistic causes )
We are all quite familiar with the nature of mechanistic causes, such as the dawn that begins each morning, followed by the sunrise, and later by the brilliant heat of the noon-day Sun, which sequences on to the sunset each evening, leading into the night.
This daily sun-cycle is a mechanistic cycle caused by the mechanical rotation of the Earth on its spin axis. Every part of this cycle is predictable with great accuracy. We have built clocks for many centuries with which to orient ourselves within the precise timeframe of this predictable mechanistic cycle.
(03 The solar system is mechanistic in nature )
The solar system is likewise mechanistic in nature. We know with great accuracy the position of all the planets in the solar system, at any given time, because their movements are governed by mechanistic laws of mass and gravity interaction. Johannes Kepler had discovered these laws back in the early 1600s already. We understand these mechanistic laws so perfectly that we can precisely orient a spacecraft and adjust its speed that it will arrive at a certain point in space at the exact same time when a planet that we aim to study also arrives at this point.
No magic is involved in the feat of calculating space-flight trajectories. Everything that is mechanistic in nature is mathematically predictable.
For a time it was also believed that the ice ages where likewise mathematically predictable with clockwork precision.
(04 The Earth's orbit around the Sun )
It was discovered as far back as 150 years ago that the Earth's orbit around the Sun is eccentric, and that the eccentricity is shifting in 100,000-year cycles. It was believed that these are coincident with the ice age cycles. It was further recognized that the tilt of the Earth spin axis is shifting back and forth by 2.4 degrees in a 41,000-year cycle, and that in addition the spin axis wobbles in circular patterns in 26,000-year cycles.
(05 Milankovitch cycles )
The Serbian civil engineer and mathematician Milutin Milankovitch had worked extensively on correlating the Earth's three orbital cycles during his internment as a prisoner in World War One. He theorized that the observed variations in eccentricity, axial tilt, and precession of the Earth's orbit, determined its climatic patterns and give us the ice ages. When the effect of the sunlight variations on Earth caused by all of these cycles is mathematically combined for the Northern Hemisphere, the computed result, called the 'Milankovitch cycles' mirrors to some degree the historic ice core data, though with major variations.
(06 The computed cycles don't match )
The cases in which the computed cycles don't match the ice core data are significant.
(07 Two previous interglacial periods )
For example, the two previous interglacial periods actually began quite a few thousand years prior to the computed increased solar exposure that should have caused them. Also the computed solar exposure is presently at a very low value, much lower than it had been during much of the previous Ice Age glaciation period.
(08 We should be in a deep glaciation )
If one compares the current computed values with most of the values during the last glaciation period, the current value is so low in comparison with the last Ice Age that we should be in a deep glaciation condition right now, which should have started a few thousand years ago.
(09 Ice Age climate cycles have a dynamic cause )
What the resulting dramatic discrepancies tell us plainly, is that the Ice Age climate cycles do not have a mechanistic cause, as was once believed, and still is widely believed, but have a dynamic cause that combines numerous interacting factors.
(10 Earth's total exposure to the Sun )
In the mechanistic sense the Earth's total exposure to the Sun is always the same no matter how and where the Earth's spin axis is tilted. The computed cyclical differences merely represented differences of solar exposure between the seasons and between the northern and southern hemisphere, wile the total energy that is received on Earth from the Sun, remains always the same.
(11 Eccentricity of the Earth's orbit )
The same is true about the eccentricity cycles of the Earth's orbit. Whether the Earth's orbit is nearly circular, as it sometimes is during the 100,000-year cycles, or whether it is typically elliptic, the mean solar radiation that is received on earth is the same in both cases. The differences are expressed only as variances between the seasons, but not in total energy received. This means that the Milankovitch cycles cannot be causative factors for the 100,000-year Ice Age Cycles, as the total energy received by the Earth doesn't vary as the result of these cycles.
(12 What is the powerful climate factor )
If oribital cycles don't cause long-term climate change, what does?
What is the powerful climate factor that gives us the Ice Ages?
(13 The Truth is out there )
The Truth is out there
(14 Caution! )
Caution! The truth is not found in the Mainstream.
(15 Scientific truth is self-evident )
The scientific truth about what does, and does not, affect the climate on earth is self-evident.
(16 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) )
Is atmospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO2) a climate factor?
(17 A climate-change gas? )
Is CO2 a climate-change gas?
Is it causing Global Warming?
Will it prevent the return of the Ice Age?
(18 CO2 is a minuscule trace gas )
The answer is NO on all counts.
CO2 is a minuscule trace gas with no practical climate effect.
(19 CO2 is so rare )
CO2 is so rare in the atmosphere that only 390 parts of a million are CO2. It is this insignificant.
(20 Compare one million )
Compare one million as a measure, with a mere 390.
(21 A more graphically meaningful comparison )
Let us make a more graphically meaningful comparison.
(22 The CO2 ratio )
If you were to offer $390 for the purchase of a million dollar mansion, your offer would be so insignificant, it would be laughable. But this is the CO2 ratio for which entire nations are being destroyed economically, and millions are put to death by starvation.
(23 The CO2 ratio of 390 parts per million )
A single man would be invisible in the sweeping view of the vast landscape of Mount Everest, the highest reaching mountain on earth, but this is comparatively the CO2 ratio of 390 parts per million.
(24 Man-made CO2 a quarter of a percent )
Now consider that man-made portion of the global atmospheric CO2 adds up the a quarter of a percent, then the CO2 comparison is between a million and less than one.
(25 Zbigniew Jaworowski )
This ratio of a quarter of a percent is the highest ratio recognized by the late Dr. Zbigniew Jaworowski, the chairman of the Scientific Council of the Central Laboratory for Radiologica Protection in Warsaw. He placed the manmade CO2 ratio into the range 5/100th of a percent, to 1/4 of a percent, in a 2003 paper.
(26 Massive world-depopulation )
If $390 would too miniscule an offer for a million dollar house, adding 97 cents to raise the offer would be joke, yet this is the ratio that the humanity's carbon footprint is all about for which a massive world-depopulation is demanded by the masters of empire, who hate the human presence.
(27 Mount Everest )
In comparison with the height of Mount Everest the manmade addition to the atmospheric CO2 (at the measure of a quarter of a percent) would be comparable in size to a shirt button or a raisin.
(28 Food burned in automobiles )
In order to reduce the CO2 increase in the world, which always fluctuates by natural causes, vast quantities of food are presently being burned in automobiles in the form of biofuels.
(29 The largest silent holocaust )
The agricultural resources that are presently diverted to biofuels production is so enormous in size that it would normally feed 100 million people. This is as many as the masters of this game are murdering each year in the largest silent holocaust of all times, or roughly 10% of the billion people who are forced into chronic starvation by the burning of food and the forced under development to keep the human carbon footprint small.
(30 The bio-fuels holocaust )
The bio-fuels holocaust under the guise of preventing manmade global warming is constantly increasing as the legislated consumption of bio-fuels is doubled, tripled, and is now up 5-fold in some areas, while farm output is diminishing as the colder climates of the already on-going slow Ice Age transition is taking its toll. The resulting scarcity is used to drive the prices through the roof, whereby evermore people end up with empty plates, becoming forced to die.
Yes, we presently kill a 100 million of our own kind each year by burning their food to prevent the manmade carbon increase of a quarter of a percent of 390 part out of a million or less than one of a million.
(32 We have become murderers )
We have become murderers for the sake of raisin that we add to the tallest mountain on earth by our living. Ironically, this isn't rated as a crime.
Yes, the greatest crime in the form of the greatest holocaust in the entire history of humanity is in progress for the sake of reducing atmospheric CO2, which itself is so critical for all life on this planet that without it not a single blade of grass, or flower, or animal, or bird, or fish, or any living being would exist.
(34 Caught up in the mainstream )
Being caught up in the mainstream is not a safe position for anyone today, as the mainstream has become a stream of indifference, and has become a murderous stream.
(35 Not a factor in the energy budget )
No, CO2 is not a significant climate factor, much less so is man-made CO2, but it has been bloated into a giant ghost-like myth that has become a huge factor in the political climate of the world, even while it is known the CO2 is not a significant factor in the energy budget of the Earth.
(36 A major dynamic factor )
However, a major dynamic factor that is well known, does cause enormous variations in the amount of solar energy that is actually absorbed on the Earth.
(37 The intensity of cloud formation )
This particular factor is determined by the intensity of cloud formation. As was already noted earlier the tops of clouds are white and highly reflective.
(38 Energy lost to us )
Their effect is that instead of absorbing the solar energy that is incoming to the Earth, the white top of the clouds reflects a major portion of the solar energy back into space. The reflected portion of this energy is lost to us completely. It is not merely redistributed. When the intensity of cloud formation is increasing, the climate gets colder by this process that is reflecting an increasing part of the solar energy that the earth is receiving, back into space.
(39 Cloudy days are colder )
The ratio at which the incoming solar energy is reflected back into space is not a fixed factor, as it reflects changes in water-vapour density and cosmic-ray density, which are the major factors that affect cloud formation. The effect is not a small one. It is a common experience on Earth that nearly everyone is familiar with, that cloudy days are colder. This means that the processes that affect the extent of cloud formation on Earth, affect our climate in a big way.
(40 Ratio between clear skies and cloudy skies )
If our atmosphere was not affected by cosmic radiation that stimulates cloud formation, the climate on Earth would be significantly warmer. Of course, without clouds, we wouldn't have any rivers, and agriculture, and any land-based life at all. Clouds play a vital role in the life-dynamics of our planet.
However, the ratio between clear skies and cloudy skies is not fixed. This means that our climate is affected in a big way by the various processes that affect this ratio.
(41 A major transition may be happening )
It has been a common experience in recent years that cloudiness has been gradually increasing, and that the earth has been getting colder at the same time. Since this process is still continuing and is increasing, one could count the experienced increase in cloudiness as a precursor for the coming transition to the next glaciation cycle on Earth. However, one single precursor, no matter how tangible it may seem, is simply not sufficient to suggest that a transition is in progress. We need to see many other coinciding precursors to recognize that a major transition may indeed be happening.
(42 Understand the dynamics of cloud formation )
In order for this recognition to be possible, we need to understand the dynamics involved in the process of cloud formation.
(43 Dynamic processes )
These further steps of exploration take us far beyond the sphere of mechanistic concepts, to the dynamic processes where vastly greater forces are involved that are not predictable with clockwork precision, but which are nevertheless knowable and understandable, and are recognizable by their unique elements of physical evidence.
(44 Cosmic-ray particles critical for cloud formation )
This opens up a whole new field of exploration, the field of cosmic-ray particles, which are critical for cloud formation and for our understanding of the climate process.
(45 Cosmic rays )
Cosmic rays are energetic charged subatomic particles, originating from outer space, composed of familiar stable particles, such as protons, atomic nuclei, or electrons. They can have energies of over 10 to the power of 20 electron volts, which makes them about a million times more energetic than what a typical particle accelerator can produce. They are electrically charged, and as they enter our atmosphere they interact with its molecules and causes them to be ionized, which causes water molecules to clump together into 'seeds' for droplets that become visible as clouds.
(46 Cloud-formation theories, )
The critical role that cosmic radiation plays is generally ignored in the cloud-formation theories, though it is one of the main causative elements.
(47 Clouds are heat engine )
The cloud dynamics are generally rather poorly understood. Clouds are heat engine. A great deal of energy is required for the transformation of liquid water into a vapor. For example, it takes a lot of energy for your tea kettle to boil completely dry, to turn its content, of typically a kilogram of water, into a vapor. This energy is not lost. It is latent energy that is invested in water vapor.
(48 Latent energy )
When the vapor is converted back into liquid droplets the latent energy is released. This release happens by the process of cloud formation, and it happens in a big way.
(49 A large cumulus cloud )
A large cumulus cloud can contain as much as a billion kilograms of water. By its forming, the latent heat released would be the equivalent of the energy required to boil a billion teakettles dry. This heat energy keeps the clouds afloat like balloons in the sky. The convection within the clouds takes the heat to the top where a greater portion is radiated into space than is reflected back to us on the ground by the heat in the clouds, for a net-energy loss
(50 The greenhouse energy )
It is believed that the greatest portion of the greenhouse energy, up to 48%, is located in the cloud-dynamic process in which cosmic radiation plays a large role and CO2 none at all. Of the remaining portion, 43% is believed to be caused by the absorption of incoming solar radiation, on which CO2 has no effect either.
(51 Earth's greenhouse )
The major energy portion of the Earth's greenhouse is located at the blue end of the visible light spectrum, the high-energy spectrum.
(52 Earth the Blue Marble )
The Earth got its name, as the Blue Marble, from this feature.
(53 Blue band of the energy spectrum )
The blue band of the energy spectrum is located far distant from the narrow infrared bands in which CO2 plays a minor role.
(54 Only 9% of the greenhouse heat )
Only 9% of the greenhouse heat is recognized to be the result of ground radiation where CO2 plays a role, and a minute one at that.
(55 Far from the CO2 arena )
The big factor, and the hugely variable factor, is located far from the CO2 arena.
(56 Climate dynamics the cosmic-ray flux )
The big factor is the ratio between cloudiness and clear skies, where CO2 plays absolutely no role at all.
The bottom line is, that in order to understand our climate dynamics, it becomes necessary to understand what causes the cosmic-ray flux to vary so dramatically that it affects this variable ratio between cloudiness and clear skies and thereby determines our climate on Earth.
(57 Far from the mainstream )
Far from the mainstream, listen to what's whispered in the grapevines at the leading edge of science.
(58 Electric Climate Dynamics. )
Understanding Electric Climate Dynamics.
(59 The solar wind is an electric wind )
The solar wind is an electric wind, a wind of electric particles. The resulting outward oriented electric wind-pressure decreases with the square of the distance so that far beyond the orbit of Pluto the pressure is no longer strong enough to maintain the fast solar-wind speed in interaction with other plasma in space.
(60 Cosmic speed of sound )
The interaction slows the solar wind down to below the so-called 'cosmic speed of sound,' of roughly 100 kilometers per second.
(61 The heliopause, behind the termination shock )
The heliopause, behind the termination shock is the theoretical boundary where the Sun's solar wind is stopped by the opposing interstellar medium. This is the point where the solar wind's 'pressure' is no longer great enough to push back the interstellar winds, which too, become compressed from the bow shock inward.
(62 A plasma wall around the solar system )
The dynamic process of constant collisions driven from the inside and from the outside creates a plasma wall around the solar system.
(63 A dual barrier )
The pushing from both directions creates a dual barrier.
(64 Barrier against the cosmic-ray flux )
The densest zone in the middle creates a plasma and magnetic wall that forms a significant barrier against the cosmic-ray flux from interstellar space.
(65 Galactic Cosmic Rays )
The effectiveness of this barrier against interstellar cosmic rays, commonly called Galactic Cosmic Rays is primarily determined by the magnitude of the solar wind-pressure, and as one would expect in such a dynamic electric system the magnitude of the solar wind-pressure is not a constant factor. The solar wind-pressure, which creates this structure, is affected to a large degree by the intensity of the solar activity, which in turn reflects the density of the electric plasma that is powering the entire system.
(66 A heliosphere for as long as the Sun is active )
While there will always be a heliosphere around the solar system for as long as the Sun is active, the size and the density of it invariably becomes decreased when the Sun becomes weaker, which is presently the case. Long-term satellite measurements have revealed a long-term weakening trend.
(67 Ongoing solar weakening )
The currently ongoing solar weakening has not only been measured in space. It coincides also with the measured increase in cosmic ray flux that the Earth is bombarded with.
Galactic Cosmic Rays have a corresponding cooling-effect on the Earth that is also being experienced and has been measured.
(69 The presence of muons )
The bottom line is that cosmic rays bombarding the Earth dramatically enhance cloud formation
The scientific proof for it is well established.
When comic rays particles interact with the atmosphere they are known to generate secondary particles. Among these are the muon particles. The muon is a basic particle like the electron, but is 200 times more massive. However, it is extremely short-lived, so that the presence of muons in the atmosphere is an indicator for cosmic-ray interaction in the atmosphere. Since the interaction, indicated by the muons, should theoretically cause an increase in aerosol nucleation that is known to cause cloud droplets, we should see a temperature increase, due to released latent heat, corresponding to the ratio of detected muons.
(70 Muon ratios and air temperature )
It has been discovered that a close relationship does indeed exist between muon ratios and air temperature. In fact the correlation is so close that the two graphs almost totally overlap. The correlation proves without a shadow of a doubt, that changes in cosmic ray flux density causes corresponding changes in the intensity of cloud formation.
(71 CERN laboratory's CLOUD project )
At the CERN laboratory's CLOUD project the interaction of cosmic rays and aerosol nucleation was further tested experimentally by injecting simulated cosmic rays into a test chamber loaded with water vapor.
(72 LPAC video on the CERN results )
Without any artificial enhancement a slight amount of aerosol formation happened by natural caused, as was presented in an LPAC video on the CERN results.
(73 Aerosol nucleation increased rapidly )
In the second phase and electric field was added with always present in the atmosphere, at this point the aerosol nucleation increased rapidly.
(74 Simulated cosmic rays were added )
In the third phase of the CERN experiment, the simulated cosmic rays were added, and as a result the measured increase went right off the chart.
(75 The CERN experiment )
The CERN experiment did prove rather conclusively the principle of cosmic-ray-enhanced cloud formation.
(76 Proved the principle of the theory )
While the experiments in a 30-foot test chamber can't duplicate the full scope of cosmic ray interaction that is orders of magnitudes larger in power and scale, the experiment has proved the principle of the theory with some rather dramatic measured results.
(77 Ice Age Challenge )
It is critical for us in facing the Ice Age Challenge that we advance our understand of the climate dynamics.
(78 The Ulysses mission )
With the Sun affecting our climate in a big way, and the sun becoming weaker as the Ulysses mission has measured, the question to ask ourselves, is, what is affecting our Sun.
(79 The Sun getting weaker )
Actually, the phenomenon of the Sun getting weaker is not mysterious in the electric universe, because the Sun is not its own master. Our Sun is surrounded by vast streams of electric plasma that power it from the outside. If their density gets weaker, so does the Sun.
(80 Electric plasma universe )
We live in an electric plasma universe. Electric plasma affects and powers every galaxy, and every star or sun within it, and every planet.
(81 Terrestrial Ice Age dynamics )
The key factor in understanding the terrestrial Ice Age dynamics and the precursors that are already evident, is located in understanding the electric nature of the universe. Nothing is more fundamental for it than this. Gravity was the focus of astronomy from Kepler onward, but in the 21st century the focus is shifting to electromagnetism and plasma.
(82 In the plasma state )
According to researchers associated with the Los Alamos National Laboratory, 99.999% of all the observable matter in the universe exists in the plasma state. We live in a Plasma Universe.
(83 Plasma electricity is subject to gravity )
Because plasma consists of free electrons and protons, plasma is as good a conductor of electricity than copper, silver, or gold. Lightning offers a dramatic manifestation of this conductive property. However, plasma electricity is also subject to gravity.
(84 Electric and magnetic forces )
All matter is subject to the force of gravity, including the plasma particles. What makes the plasma particles unique, is that they also react to electric and magnetic forces. The electric and magnetic forces are 36 orders of magnitude stronger than the force of gravity. Nor do they diminish with the square of the distance, as does gravity, but only linearly, which gives these forces a near infinite reach.
(85 Electric plasma is attracted to the Sun by its gravity )
It is hard to acknowledge that plasma in space is electricity that responds to both, the force of gravity and the electric force. Electric plasma is attracted to the Sun by its gravity. In this interaction the electric density becomes great, to the point that an electric charge separation occurs.
(86 Electric arc discharge )
When the built up tension becomes great enough, an electric arc discharge occurs with the power of the electric force. On Earth the discharge is seen occasionally as lightning. On the Sun, the arc lightning is continuous and universal. It illumines the Sun from the outside. The reactive region is called the photosphere.
(87 A nuclear fusion furnace )
When the discharge becomes too explosive, it occasionally rips a hole into the photosphere which reveals the lower region of the Sun as being dramatically darker. It also rips a hole into the theory that the Sun is internally powered by a nuclear fusion furnace deep within. If it was, the lower layers would be brighter instead of being darker.
(88 Rescue the solar nuclear fusion concept )
Great efforts are being made with convoluted theories to rescue the solar nuclear fusion concept. So far none of these efforts have been able to explain what forces, other than the electric force, would cause the solar winds to be accelerated to millions of miles per hour as they flow away from the Sun and thereby heat up to millions of degrees.
(89 Our sun is an electric star )
Ultimately it will be acknowledged that our sun is an electric star, and all the stars in the universe likewise, even that the universe is electrically powered and is thereby anti-entropic in nature.
(90 The factor of electric density )
The factor of electric density is probably the most significant determining element in the dynamic interplay in the electric system that creates and maintains the solar heliosphere.
(91 Ice Age precursors )
If we are looking for Ice Age precursors, we will find them in this system, long before they become evident elsewhere.
So, what do we find there?
(92 NASA's Ulysses spacecraft )
What we find there is amazing. NASA's Ulysses spacecraft, has measured a 20% decrease in solar wind pressure in a timeframe of 10 years. The Ulysses mission was launched in 1990 to encircle the sun in a unique orbit that carries it over both the sun's poles and its equator, giving Ulysses a global view of solar wind activity.
(93 The heliosphere the weakest of 50 years )
The principle investigator, Dave McComas, tells us that the observed reduction makes the heliosphere the weakest it's been since the monitoring of the solar wind began almost 50 years ago. The spacecraft made 3 orbits around the Sun on a polar trajectory. The values received from the third orbit, shown in blue, were radically lower than those received during the 1st orbit, shown in green.
While the speed of the million miles per hour, solar wind, hasn't decreased much - only 3% - the change in pressure comes as a surprise. It is made up of reductions in solar-wind temperature, and also in solar wind density.
(94 Sun's underlying magnetic field has weakened )
In the timeframe between the three orbits, the solar wind has become 13% cooler and 20% less dense. Ulysses also found that the Sun's underlying magnetic field has weakened by more than 30% since the mid-1990s, which reduces the natural shielding against cosmic rays even more.
(95 Climate change precursor, and Ice Age precursor )
Ulysses cosmic-ray data shows, as one would expect as the result of the lower solar-wind pressure, that the high energy electrons in the giga-electron-volt range have increased in numbers. They have jumped in numbers by about 20%. That's an enormous jump. This jump is an undeniable telltale component of a climate change precursor, and Ice Age precursor, that is manifest in increases in cosmic rays reaching the Earth.
(96 A fifth of the way towards full Ice Age conditions )
It is known from measurements in structures that formed near the end of the last Ice Age, that the cosmic-ray flux was twice as dense during the glacial period. With a 20% jump in cosmic-ray flux having already occurred during the last 50 years, we are presently a fifth of the way towards full Ice Age conditions. If this progression is linear in nature, we will experience full Ice Age conditions in 200 years. However, the rapid decline in solar wind pressure that the Ulysses probe has measured, suggests that the progression towards the next Ice Age is exponential, rather than linear. In this case, if the trend continues exponentially, we will be in full Ice Age conditions in just a few decades, possibly even before 2050.
(97 Awesome precursor that Ulysses brings )
That's the awesome precursor that Ulysses brings home. With this achievement completed, the Ulysses mission was closed down in 2009, after nearly 19 years in operation, putting the onus on humanity to act on its discovery.
(98 Ulysses mission countered the global warming dogma )
To the best of my knowledge the Ulysses mission was not closed down as the result of equipment failures. Officially its mission objective had been achieved, but in the light of its discovery in 2008, that is critical for the future of humanity, one cannot help wondering if a deeper reason might not have stood behind the termination of the mission as its finding countered the global warming dogma, against which high-profile opposition is not allowed.
(99 Johannes Kepler would suggest )
The answer to the modern paradox, as we see the door more and more closed to the advance of science, and this at the time when the most critical challenge to civilization lays before us, is not found in politics were many a blocking factor is located. Johannes Kepler would suggest that the key to solving this kind of paradox lays within ourselves. The key to the solution, as he discovered, is our self-discovery as human beings on which every other solution depends.
(00 Kepler founder of modern science )
Johannes Kepler, who became famous in the early 1600s for his breakthrough discoveries in astronomy by which he became recognized as potentially the founder of modern science, would say to us that the solution to any such paradox of the type we face today, is not rooted in politics, but in society's self-discovery of its humanity. He would say this, based on his own experience.
(01 Science is a facet of humanity's self-discovery )
If the movement in civilization of society's self-discovery is missing, nothing will be achieved and society finds itself doomed. If on the other hand, there is a strong movement on the front of humanist self-discovery happening, all kinds of doors begin to open that in most cases weren't even known to exist.
That's what science is all about, he would say. Science is a facet of humanity's self-discovery as it challenges the frontier of the unknown. If this movement is honest, no empire and politics can block its advance. The door to freedom opens on this front, and is secondary and subsequent to it. Only though this door can the freedom be gained that uplifts the physical living of humanity with the power of its creativity, productivity, technological development, and humanity in politics.
(02 Civilization is not a gift )
Civilization unfolds from this, driven by the power of scientific development that is the essence of humanist development. Civilization is not a gift handed to us on a silver platter. It is a gem to be earned; a power to be developed; and a horizon without limits to be ventured into. With it, the Ice Age challenge doesn't really pose a challenge; no, not at all. That is how Kepler would address this issue, and urge us to do so likewise.