Instead of the fusion fuel being heated in a magnetically
confined plasma, the alternate method for fusion ignition, at NIF laser-light
is used to create a heat-shockwave
that compresses a fuel capsule to an extremely high density whereby is atoms are beginning to
As with any other fusion experiment,
here too, immense problems are standing
in the way that are uniquely inherent in laser-powered fusion-ignition systems (inertial confinement).
Nevertheless 'some' progress has been made on the road of demonstrating that
fusion ignition is possible by simply compressing the fuel on the 'anvil' of
immense power being applied to the fuel itself. The first laser-confined fusion ignition
has been achieved, but this doesn't mean that a practical power
plant is on the horizon, or will actually become possible.
To give you a sense of what
"immense" power means, let me illustrate the process that is
used. The process starts with the highest-power light source in existence,
the xenon flash bulb where light-energy is created by electric arc confined in a gas
plasma. A single one of these is so bright by itself that it could be
seen from the moon. NIF employs some 8,000 of them, which together require
nearly 400 MJ of electrical energy. Their light output is used to pump up
192 laser lines. The flash
lamps that used for this purpose are the largest of this type ever
produced. (Photo by the U.S. Department of Energy)
The flashbulbs are used in groups
powered by capacitor banks in the rooms beside the laser bays.
Their light is fed into large lasers lines where
the light intensity is combined and amplified. The 192 lasers beams are then
combined into groups of four, to form 48 beam lines (blue, below). In the
beam lines the beams are
focused and filtered and then sent on to the switch yard (red) where they
are timed and guided to arrive all of them together from different
directions, at the 30 foot wide target chamber - a sphere weighing 130
tons - where, before entering the chamber, each beam is focused by a high-precision
The NIF is a giant facility (which
can been seen by scale of the people shown in it). It is three times larger than a football field. It is the most complex
optical facility ever created. It is designed to produce altogether a 500
trillion-watt flash of light, precisely focused onto a
target smaller than a pea, with the light arriving from 48 directions simultaneously,
timed to within picoseconds.
The fuel target is made up of a
thin 2 mm wide shell of beryllium with a layer of solid deuterium-tritium
deposited on its inner wall. The deposited fuel,
weighing 0.238 mg, is frozen to minus 255 degrees Celsius,. The above photo
(a mockup) indicates the size of the target
The target capsule itself is located inside a
10mm long gold-plated tube (hohlraum)
the size of the tip of a finger. (See: http://fire.pppl.gov/fpa07_lindl_icf.pdf
The 48 beams are
focused to enter the hohlraum through a 2 mm hole on either end.
In the hohlraum the light is
converted to x-rays that are able to couple with the exterior of the fuel capsule.
The thereby absorbed energy is creating a shockwave that compresses the fuel to
roughly 75 times the density of lead. It thereby causes a fusion explosion
with an energy release up to 11 Kg of TNT (dynamite) exploding (one
thousands of the energy of the Hiroshima bomb, but concentrated to occur
within an extremely short timeframe). The resulting explosion takes place
inside a 30 foot wide target chamber. - See the image below. Note the
When the ignition is
achieved (late in 2010), the 365 megajoules
(MJ) of electrical energy that powers the over 8,000 flash bulbs by way of
capacitor banks, and whatever additional energy is required to amplify the
laser light, is expected to produce about 13 to 20 MJ of fusion energy -
effectively a 15-fold energy loss.
( for more, see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Ignition_Facility
Improvements in both the laser system and the hohlraum design are expected
to be possible that would improve the compression shockwave. An increase
in fusion energy produced to 100 MJ is theoretically possible, but
only as a theory. The current
hohlraum design is rated at 13MJ. The NIF, the baseline design can handle about 45 MJ of fusion energy release,
that is limited by the design
limits of the target
chamber. If the maximum limit was achieved, the result would nevertheless amount to a nearly
7-fold net energy loss.
Document of DOE amd OSTI http://www.osti.gov/bridge/purl.cover.jsp;jsessionid=FB2EABB214F9DBA08760EAF2B833BF80?purl=/435064-dnjREm/webviewable/
DOE -US. Department of Energy Information
Bridge: DOE Scientific and Technical Information // OSTI -
Office of Scientific and Technical
of the holeraum - Energy
and Work Converter
As stated earlier, it is unlikely that
the large inefficiency in the system can be overcome, especially if one
considers that a 3-fold gain is required just to achieve break-even (considering that the neutron-to-thermal-to-electric conversion is
typically only 30% efficient). This means that at 21-fold increase in
energy gain needs to be achieved to get to the break-even stage. This puts
us far beyond what the facility is
Also the facility
produces an extremely low power-flux density, considering that with the current
hohlraum design, rated at 13 MJ, 3,000 ignitions would be
required to meet the monthly energy need of a single-family home
(typically 13 GJ - 13,000 MJ). At its maximum capacity, in automotive terms,
the facility would produce a fusion energy output of 16
horsepower hours per day, since only one firing a day is possible. NIF
expects to improve the cooling efficiency of the system for a possible 700
ignitions per year for a maximum outpu of 30 horsepower-hours per day, but
this too, can hardly be counted as a gigantic power production,
considering the enormous size of the facility.
While mankind is evidently miles away from constructing a viable
on the platform of the laser-confinement type, if it is indeed possible to
do so, the main mission for the NIF is presently not the fusion-power
project, but is to assure the viability of
America's nuclear weapons stockpile. Fusion-power research appears to be a
in the system was known
before the first stone was laid for the facility. It was known that the maximum fusion power
obtained, would not exceed 1/7th of the power needed to ignite the
fusion. This is the parameter that the facility was designed for.
However, the facility is an ideal tool for testing different
fusion-fuel combinations and methods for laser ignition. The deuterium-tritium fuel,
that is currently used, is made up of atoms that presents the least resistance to fusion,
but as stated earlier, its output comes with a lot of problems
attached. Theoretically a number of different fusion-fuel combinations are
possible, that would not produce their fusion-energy in the form of
highly destructive neutron bursts. They would produce
atoms, protons, or ions, with a high kinetic energy instead that might be directly converted into electricity.
These alternate fuels are called aneutronic fusion fuels. It has
been proposed that such alternate fusion fuels "can be composed of light atomic
nuclei like hydrogen,
and their various isotopes. Some isotopes like hydrogen-1,
are of interest for aneutronic
nuclear fusion (low neutron
radiation hazards), for example:
Since the alternate
fusion fuels require vastly greater energy as input The National Ignition
Facility (NIF) might become upgraded in the years ahead to become sufficiently powerful to test some of the
theoretically possible alternatives, although helium-3 fusion might not
be achievable by the laser confinement method as the power that is
required to overcome the larger coulomb barrier of helium 3 might
not be attainable with laser ignition.
we have any hope left, for nuclear fusion power to ever become possible?
This is extremely unlikely. The problem here is not located in the
inefficiency of the fusion system itself, but in the inefficiency of
the driving system. The present world record for any type of
produced fusion power still clocks in at only 10% of the power
required to achieve the fusion. In most of the publicized cases the
fusion gain is highly overrated, which is easily done by 'dishonest'
accounting, omitting inconvenient factors.
The fusion gain rating depends on what is measured
In rating the fusion energy gain, it all depends
on what inputs one measures, and what is being ignored.
For example, the
NIF facility can be said to achieve a more than 5-fold fusion power
if one considers only the 4 MJ
of light energy as input that comes out of the laser lines, which one
then compares with the resulting 20 MJ
fusion power output.
with this kind of measurement is, that it ignores the fact that it takes 350 MJ of
electrical energy to produce those 4 MJ of light energy in the beam
But the fusion gain measurement can be further obscured,
because the 4 MJ in laser light energy is converted to 1.8 MJ of UV light before it enters the
target chamber, and is converted once more to a mere 900 KJ of x-ray energy in
the hohlraum. So, what does one measure then?
The conversion to
x-rays is needed, because nothing but x-rays can cause the high energy absorption
(coupling) to happen that is needed for fusion to occur, which is the actual
input to the fusion ignition. For this reason the fuel capsule has been
constructed as a hollow shell to give it as large a surface area as
possible in order to absorb the x-rays. For this reason, too, the
fusion-fuel capsule is made of a material that readily absorbs x-ray
energy. Once this absorption has occurred, in the end, only 140 KJ of energy is
physically transferred to the fuel itself in the
form of a heat-driven compression shockwave. Does one count this as
the emery input? It is after all, this last bit of energy, those 140 KJ
of energy, that gets coupled into the fuel, which then ignites the 20 MJ fusion burn.
All the rest of the input is lost on the way. So, what does one measure if one talks about fusion energy gain?
For example, if the fusion energy is
measured against the 4 MJ of light
produced in beam lines, one can talk about a 5-fold energy gain.
the fusion energy is measured against the 1.8 MJ of (UV) light energy
that is sent to the target chamber, then one can speak about an
11-fold fusion-energy gain. This appears to be the typical standard
for measuring fusion efficiency.
If however, one measures the fusion output against the
900 KJ of x-ray energy that is produced inside the hohlraum,
then one can talk about a 22-fold energy gain.
Finally, if one measures
the fusion output only
against 140 KJ energy of the compression shockwave that acts on the
fuel itself, then one can talk about a 142-fold energy gain.
On the other other hand, if one is honest and considers the entire process that takes 350 MJ of electric energy as
power the process, then one faces a 15-fold energy loss.
difference between the 142-fold fusion-energy gain and the 15-fold
over-all loss, reflects the effective physical inefficiency of the entire operating
system, that in a practical application, would have to be considered when judging the
factors involved in an operational fusion power plant.
it takes enormous floods of energy to overcome the numerous natural barriers
that the Universe has set up against nuclear fusion to happen. And
this huge energy barrier is encountered already with the most-readily fusing fuel that exists, which is the
D-T fuel, a 'dirty' fuel. The
NIF research has proven beyond the shadow of a doubt that the
wall of barriers that the Universe has created against fusion power is
being proposed in the UK, to overcome some of the inherent inefficiency
problems experienced at NIF. For this a new experimental project has
been designed, called
HiPER - the proposed European
High Power laser Energy Research facility. This
is just as large in size as the NIF facility but aims to address
some of the problems that stand in the way of a practical commercial
fusion-power facility, and this on the platform of laser ignited fusion. While
the goal appears noble, it displays the same quality of
science-fiction unreality that is evident at the CERN project and
may well be intended to consume talents and resources for an effort
that is a dead-end effort from the start.
the challenges and to potential for meeting them, which are all exciting, but appear fundamentally
unattainable, especially the critical challenges.
the OMEGA - type fusion
In order to
overcome the inefficiency inherent in the design of the NIF,
the HiPER project aims to use less
powerful lasers, but in a two-stage ignition process, called the
"fast ignition" process. In this process the first stage
towards ignition will surface-heat a fuel pellet directly, causing not a shockwave but merely
a 'moderate' thermal compression. Then a second and more powerful beam
-- operating at a vastly larger energy density, but for a much shorter
duration, typically 0.5 to 10 pico seconds, called the "peta
watt" laser --, would penetrate the compressing plasma and
in doing so create a plasma
within the fuel that is expected to release a shower of electrons
that in turn would start the fusion process. The penetration of the
compression plasma can be accomplished by placing a gold cone funnel
on one side of the fusion pellet for the penetration by the peta
laser. A second method that is also considered for fast-ignition fusion is to
simply overpower the compression plasma and cause a spot-burn at the
surface to start the ignition process. The principle has been demonstrated
at the OMEGA facility at The
Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) of the University of
Rochester. The experiment has produced a 0.01 fusion gain by this methode (a world
The process is deemed
to be 15 times more efficient (though not enough). But will it work
at all on a larger scale? It may be just another
dream. A potentially practical process has not been demonstrated, and cannot be
demonstrated for another 15 years or more, until the HiPER facility has been
( See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HiPER
of the light source is also expected to be increased by HiPER. Since
recent advances in light
emitting diode systems (LED) now achieve the most efficient conversion
of electricity to light for which a 15-fold efficiency gain is expected
for the light source.
At NIF, the big inefficiency is in the light
production that employs 8000 giant xenon flash lamps. Considering
that 350 MJ of electrical energy is needed at NIF to produce
the 1.8 MJ of UV light energy that is transmitted into the target
chamber, the efficiency of the system reaches barely above the 1% mark. HiPER intents to achieve a 10% to
15% efficiency. Whether this can actually be achieved remains to be
seen. The dream may yet come true.
With the two
factors of increased efficiency combined, a more than 200-fold
increase in power-gain is expected. The actual fusion energy
produced, per ignition, is expected to be the same as for NIF,
ranging at about
20 MJ per burn. This all means that NIF's 17-fold net power-loss can be
turned into an overall 12 to 15 fold power gain.
for this gain to be realized in a practical power plant, a rapid
fire process must now be developed. In a 1 GW power plant the
ignition process would have to be repeated 6 to 10 times per second.
For this to be possible, a
diode-laser system is now being developed that produces less heat
and might enable a fusion repetition rate of 10 times per second,
provided that the dream comes true. And that's a big if,
considering the power level that is needed on a sustained basis.
At the fifth
International Conference on Inertial Fusion Sciences and
Applications (IFSA2007) an international demonstration plant was
proposed: The International Laboratory Inertial Fusion Test facility
(i-LIFT) operating at 100-kJ with 1-Hz implosion rate and another
100-kJ laser system, operating at 1-Hz for the ignition heating,
which together would generate 10-MW of thermal power at an energy gain of 50.
Of the thermal output, 40% of the energy would be converted to electricity by a power generator. A half of the electricity, 2 MW,
would be used to drive the laser with 10% efficiency, and another half
(2 MW) would be transferred to the grid. It is expected that the power and stability of
such an experimental reactor would be comparable to those of a typical wind power machine.
Nevertheless, the net electrical power production would be a landmark
achievement in fusion energy development. If enough funding is given
for it, power generation
could be expected with this type of demonstration plant by 2030.
Of course, the
biggest and most 'impossible' exotic problem for this principle is that the fusion pellet injection
into the target chamber has to be absolutely precise, so that the
tiny fusion target of two tenth of a milligram in weight, after
possibly a 15-foot injection
trajectory, becomes positioned at the exact center of the laser
point and with the extreme accuracy that is required for radial compression, and
all this at precisely
the time when the lasers are fired. This super-precise
kinetic positioning also needs to be achieved in
rapid succession up to ten times a second, and all this in an
extremely volatile high-energy
environment of a fusion flux chamber that is powered by continuous nuclear explosions.
This all adds up to a daunting engineering task that makes fairy
tales seem rational, but which may never be achieved in the real
world. At NIF and other experiments the fusion target is always statically positioned and aligned
with extreme precision. This type of precision has never been achieved in flight with a tiny
mass of a fraction of a milligram and in a volatile environment. This
inherent demand that is fundamental to the entire process puts the project into the realm of miracles and evidently
of reach for practical power generation.
is uncertain whether a target chamber can be built that is capable
of extracting multi-megawatts ow power on a continuous basis and carry that heat out
of the target chamber for power production, while at the same time
protecting the facility from the 100-fold stronger neutron flux of
the D-T fusion reactions. And the final challenge is to place sufficient quantities
of lithium close enough to the neutron stream to enable the production of tritium
from the neutron flux, with which to produce more fuel for the reactor.
optimistic estimate that has been tabled recently is that a 100 -
200 MW demonstration plant might be possible by 2035 with the
development of a new generation of high gain target designs.
( see: http://j-parc.jp/Transmutation/ws/pdfen/3-3_Mima.pdf
Since the HiPER
fusion project, and other similar projects, have so many basic characteristics in common with the
Large Hadron Collider of CERN, one one wonders if this direction of
high-energy research has been
intentionally initiated as just another dead-end effort along the Wellsian/Fabian
road of keeping science tied into knots and thereby ineffective for the
common benefit of mankind. This possibility needs to be considered,
especially in the light of the high cost and complexity of producing
the D-T fuel for the rector, and the cost-efficiency of the total
system in comparison with the readily available thorium fission power systems that produce
the same energy output per ton of fuel in radically smaller,
simpler, less expensive, and already designed reactors, and for
which a couple of million tons of fuel are easily accessible with
vastly more available, while for the fusion system the fuels are
extremely difficult to produce.
final question: Would fusion power be worth the effort, considering
the fuel cost, should the fusion process ever become possible?
Per ton, the
current nuclear fusion fuel, a deuterium/tritium combination, contains
5 times the energy per kilogram than uranium 235 ( 481 TJ of energy per
kilogram for D-T, versus 82 TJ of energy for uranium) This is not a huge
difference. The small advantage that the fusion fuel offers is more than used up by
the inherent inefficiency of the fusion power process in which the
fusion 'explosion' blows the fuel apart before all of it
is used up.
At NIF the fuel capsule typically contains 0.238 mg of
fuel for an expected energy yield of 20 MJ, which will likely be
achieved. This, however, adds up to only 17% of the energy contained
in the fuel being produced. The rest of the fuel is lost as a result of the ignition process. At this rate of
the fusion fuel output is roughly equal to the fission fuel output in a thorium
fueled nuclear-fission reactor. At today's best rate, a ton of either fuel
is required of (D-T fuel for fusion, or thorium for fission) to power a 1 GW reactor for a year.
The difference is, that of the thorium fission fuel, two million tons
are readily available in known deposits, while the D-T fusion fuel
does not exist at all in any useful quantities, and requires expensive and
cumbersome processes for it to be produced.
The D-T fuel is
made up of two parts. The deuterium (
D ) portion of the fuel is a 'heavy' isotope of hydrogen. It exists plentifully on
the Earth. It is
found in large quantities in seawater. However, it is highly diluted
there. In the oceans, 'heavy hydrogen' ( D ) amounts to a mere 0.015
percent of the hydrogen of the water molecules. Deuterium
is 'heavy' hydrogen, because it has a neutron attached to its
nucleus. The presence of 'heavy' hydrogen produces 'heavy' water. At
the best current
technologies 340,000 tons of seawater are required for the
extraction of a single ton of heavy water, from which the deuterium
can be extracted. Since the hydrogen (deuterium) component of 'heavy' water
makes up only 20% of the weight of heavy water, five tons of heavy water are
required to produce a ton of deuterium. (In the D-T fusion fuel, 40% is
deuterium). In other words, it takes the processing of 680,000
tons of water (and desalination if seawater is used) to produce the deuterium for a
single ton of fusion fuel.
The fuel production on this scale adds up to a rather expensive and
energy intensive process, considering that 1 ton of D-T fuel is required to
power a 1 GW reactor for one year.
Between 1979 and
1997 Canada had operated the world's largest heavy water plant, the
Bruce Plant located at Douglas Point in Bruce County on Lake Huron, where it had access to the waters of the Great Lakes.
The heavy water plant was a part of an integrated complex of 8 CANDU nuclear reactors
that supplied the plant's process heat and electrical power. The
giant heavy water plant had produced 700 tons of heavy water per
year, (containing 140 tons of deuterium, enough for 350 tons of D-T
fuel, or half the amount needed to power the USA for a year with
nuclear fusion reactors). The Bruce heavy water plant was shut
down in 1997 because of environmental concerns, since it utilized
process that involves large amounts of hydrogen
sulfide. After the shutdown, the plant was gradually dismantled
and the site cleared. Atomic
Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is currently researching other
more efficient and environmentally benign processes for creating
heavy water. The production of heavy water is nevertheless essential for the future of the CANDU reactors
since heavy water represents about 20% of the capital cost of a
CANDU reactor system. The case of Canada is mentioned here as an indicator of the
high production cost of the D-T fusion-reactor fuel. It may well be
less expensive to import the fusion fuel from the moon, should
helium-3 fusion, and indeed nuclear fusion power in general, ever
become commercially feasible.
Heavy waters is currently used in CANDU reactors for its excellent efficiency
in moderating the neutron propagation without absorbing the neutrons
themselves. (See table
other component of the fusion fuel is tritium. It is extremely rare on
takes a million tons of seawater to extract a single ton of tritium
from it. Tritium can also be produced in nuclear reactors by irradiating lithium with
neutrons. This too, is a slow process. Since 1996 only a quarter ton
of tritium has been produced worldwide. The production has been largely shut down under the nuclear weapons control
treaty. Tritium ( T ) is an even 'heavier' isotope of
hydrogen, which is also slightly radioactive and has a half-life of
only 12 years. Tritium is currently
the key-critical element in the D-T fusion fuel. It is difficult to
produce since ts nucleus contains one proton and two (unnatural) attached neutrons. (Normally, hydrogen contains no neutrons.)
Thus, the D-T fuel is
rather costly to produce. To help the
production process of the tritium for the fuel, it is envisioned that commercial fusion reactors
will be designed in a manner that some of their fusion-derived neutrons will
strike lithium, which thereby breeds tritium, in order that the
tritium can subsequently be
extracted to produce more fuel. This adds another level of
complexity to the fusion reactor design and operation.
is not the savior of fusion-power on Earth!
Since all atomic
nuclei, regardless of their makeup, repel one another, because of
the positive electric charge of their protons, it has been
discovered that at high enough temperatures and pressures, they can be
together to such close distances that their electrical repulsion (called the Coulomb
force) is overcome and the nuclei collide. At this point the strong nuclear force becomes
the dominant force and binds the colliding nuclei to form a heavier
atom. Now, with the tritium nucleus containing
two (additional) neutrons, while having the same electric charge as the nucleus of ordinary hydrogen,
the electrostatic repulsive force
is more easily overcome, as the tritium offers a two-fold mass
advantage. This happens, because the (additional) neutrons in the tritium nucleus,
which do NOT add to the repulsive force, do however increase the
ability to break through the coulomb barrier to access the attractive strong-nuclear
force that initiates the fusion.
As a result, the tritium atoms do more easily fuse with other light atoms,
especially with deuterium that has also an extra neutron. This basic
makes the D-T fusion fuel the most-readily-fusing fuel that is known
the situation is reversed. The helium-3 isotope has two protons and
only one neutron. This means that the repulsive electric force that
must be overpowered is twice as strong per mass as in the D-T fuel. This
doubly-strong Coulomb force, which must be overcome for fusion to
happen, requires a significantly greater energy input than is necessary
with D-T fusion. It is unlikely that a magnetic confinement
reactor (such as ITER), which is already stressed to the limit, can
be up-scaled for the energy input that is needed for helium-3
fusion, and then produce power past the break-even
point. Those requirements put practical fusion power from helium-3
via magnetic confinement fusion far out of reach, and more so by
laser confinement methods.
Nor is it likely that
the NIF laser fusion facility, (that actually has not yet achieved D-T
fusion at all, but
will likely do so in the future), will achieve the large needed increase in power
input to overcome the large Coulomb barrier of helium-3. As I said
earlier, the only
reactor that has demonstrated helium-3 fusion, to my knowledge, is
an electrostatic confinement reactor designed by Professor Kulcinski,
a member of the NASA Advisory Council. This reactor requires a
1,000,000-fold greater energy input than the fusion gives back. Professor Kulcinski’s
design uses "an electrostatic
field to contain the plasma, instead of an electromagnetic field.
His current reactor contains spherical plasma roughly ten
centimeters in diameter. It can produce a sustained fusion with 200
million reactions per second producing about one milliwatt of power
while consuming about one kilowatt of power to run the reactor. The
nuclear power without radioactive waste or neutron caused radiation." (see: A fascinating hour with Gerald Kulcinski
ratio of the number of neutrons to protons in the helium-3 atom (in
comparison with tritium, hydrogen-3), makes fusion extremely hard to achieve.
The current hoopla over helium-3
fusion appears to be just another
global-warming type scientific hoax on the Paolo-Sarpi platform of driving
scientific development into a dead-end ally, intended to block the potential
for real power development.
Helium-3 fusion appears to be possible
only in the vacuum of space and by the same principle by which
helium-3 is created in the first place, the principle of kinetic
fusion, and for kinetic fusion-energy
output such as is useful for space propulsion. On earth
efficient kinetic fusion is inhibited by air molecules getting in
the way. No natural principle exists for nuclear fusion to happen in
a planetary environment.
principle for nuclear-fusion
power is entropic and therefore not natural as a power resource
Universe nuclear fusion is a building process, and not a consuming process, such as
the fusion-sun is deemed to run on, that is deemed self-consuming.
The lack of a fundamental principle for it in the Universe, and even
need for it, may be the chief reason why nuclear-fusion energy production is failing in
principle. The Universe does not employ processes that are entropic in
principle, since the Universe itself is anti-entropic in nature.
It needs to be repeated here that the fusion-power
concept is built on the assumption that every sun in the Universe is
powered by nuclear fusion, whereby the Universe is deemed self-consuming and winding down, rather than being self-developing
and expanding in every respect. Since no evidence exists that
supports the assumption of universal entropy, the
nuclear-fusion-power concept that is built on the assumption of natural
built on a false premise, and becomes becomes an unnatural pursuit that is
inherently bound to fail.
Helium-3 fusion, on the other hand, would
constitute a natural type of fusion, a kinetic fusion. Kinetic
fusion is the type of fusion that the
Universe operates at the surface of the Sun, which is powered by galactic
plasma electricity. Helium-3 is an incomplete product resulting from
kinetic fusion. It results from excessive energy input during the creating fusion process, which
through nuclear fission can be regained, like the electricity in a
charged battery can be utilized. All so-called nuclear fusion-power,
no matter by what method it is realized, is actually power derived
from an associated nuclear-fission process. One of the atoms of the
D-T fuel fissions in order to supply the proton that the other atom
lacks. The neutron release (with a high kinetic energy) results from
this fission. With helium-3 fusion the process is similar. Its
energy is derived from nuclear fission.
The utilization of
the kinetic fusion that is a building process on the surface of the
Sun can also be applied in space if the kinetic process can be
duplicated. The utilization of this process would then not mimic a primary
entropic process, but merely constitute a secondary, completing, or
correcting, process. The resulting kinetic product itself, would then become useful in the space environment in
which it occurs naturally, as
for space travel propulsion. Electrically driven kinetic fusion
is naturally occurring. It happens on every sun in the process of
producing larger atoms, and not primarily for power production that
results merely as an insignificant side-effect in the over-all scheme
of creative fusion.