Unboxing the Crab Nebula 2011 

2011 - Enabling the Inevitable

The Crab Nebula


NASA/ESA - The Crab Nebula

An enigma in the box of consensus
A simple phenomenon outside of the box

A perplexing mystery? Oh, is it? 

The Crab Nebula corresponds to a supernova recorded by Chinese astronomers and Arab astronomers in 1054 AD. It was first observed in 1731 by John Bevis, and independently rediscovered in 1758 by Charles Messier. The Earl of Rosse observed it at Birr Castle in the 1840s, and referred to the object as the Crab Nebula because a drawing he made of it looked like a crab.

It is located at a distance of about 6,500 light-years (2 kpc) from Earth and has a diameter of 11 ly (3.4 pc). It expands at a rate of about 1,500 kilometers per second. The amount of matter contained in the Crab Nebula's filaments is estimated to be 4.6 ± 1.8 solar masses.

The heart of the Crab

The heart of the mystery of Crab Nebula lays deep inside the giant nebula envelope, far beyond what the senses can behold. It can be seen only in x-ray 'light.'


NASA - Chandra x-ray telescope  - The inside of the Crab Nebula seen in X-ray and UV

The consensus 'science'

There, at the center of the nebula lay two faint stars. One is deemed to be responsible for the existence of the nebula, which has been identified as the Crab Pulsar, a neutron star (or spinning ball of neutrons), 28–30 km across, which emits pulses of radiation from gamma rays to radio waves with a spin rate of 30.2 times per second. Theoretical models of supernova explosions suggest that the star that exploded to produce the Crab Nebula must have had a mass of between 9 and 11 solar masses.

The region around the star was found to be a strong source of radio waves in 1949, and X-rays in 1963, and was identified as one of the brightest objects in the sky in gamma rays in 1967.  Like all isolated pulsars, its period is slowing very gradually. Occasionally, its rotational period shows sharp changes, known as 'glitches', which are believed to be caused by a sudden realignment inside the neutron star. The energy released as the pulsar slows down is enormous. It powers the emission of the synchrotron radiation of the Crab Nebula, which has a total luminosity about 75,000 times greater than that of the Sun.

The pulsar's extreme energy output creates an unusually dynamic region at the center of the Crab Nebula. While most astronomical objects evolve so slowly that changes are visible only over timescales of many years, the inner parts of the Crab show changes over timescales of only a few days. The most dynamic feature in the inner part of the nebula is the point where the pulsar's equatorial wind slams into the bulk of the nebula, forming a shock front. The shape and position of this feature shifts rapidly, with the equatorial wind appearing as a series of wisp-like features that steepen, brighten, then fade as they move away from the pulsar to well out into the main body of the nebula.

In reference to all of the above, see: The Crab Nebula

Imprisoned in the box of consensus 'science'

The high-resolution picture of the Crab Nebula above (upper image), taken by the Very Large Telescope (VLT), shows the filamentation produced by magnetic fields and electric currents. This occurs as material races away from the nebula's core at half the speed of light. According to NASA this occurs at a "higher speed than expected from a free explosion."  And so it should. Acceleration of particles to extremely high speed (1,500 km/sec) is a trademark of electrical activity. No other force than the electromagnetic force is  known to exist with the power to achieve this feat of acceleration, extending over vast distances.

In the lower photograph taken by the Chandra X-Ray Telescope, we see the internal dynamics of the Crab Nebula. It reveals a structure that is typical of the intensely energetic phenomena that have been observed for decades in laboratory experiments with electrical discharges in plasma.  That these dynamics are revealed by x-rays is significant, because x-ray activity always accompanies high-energy electrical interactions. The internal polar configuration is of particular interest. A torus or wheel-like structure revolves around an axial column--presenting what some have called a "doughnut on a stick".  Polar columns or jets (as we see them above) are typical and expected in intense plasma discharge phenomena.

In their discussion of the Crab Nebula, NASA spokesmen refer to "a scintillating halo, and an intense knot of emission dancing, sprite-like, above the pulsar's pole".  Though gravitational theories never envisioned the polar "jets", "haloes", and "knots" of the Crab Nebula, we can now recognize these as prime examples of electrical forces in the universe. (see: Sep 16, 2004 Crab Nebula)

The paradox inside the consensus box where everything is deemed to be caused by gravity begins with the known fact that gravity is a weak force that can generate only a dribble of energy, while  we see floods of energy throughout the Universe . The consensus among astronomers is boxed by the notion that the energies of the universe can only come from gravitational mechanisms, because, after all, that's all there is. If mass is equivalent to energy, and the force of gravity activates it, than the floods of energy that we see in the cosmos require enormities of mass, driven by gravity.

Since the consensus is that magnitude of mass is equivalent to amount of matter, many of the floods of energy require more matter than can fit into the observed sizes of their sources. Consensus opinion takes recourse in boosting densities: by ignoring all that is known empirically and much that is known theoretically about the compression of matter. The consensus opinion is that however much matter is needed can be crammed into the available volume. This means for the Crab Nebula that twice the mass of our Sun has been compressed into a ball only 30 km wide.


Crab by the Spitzer Space Telescope

Nestled deep inside the blue haze is the above structure with pulsar star at the center. The diffuse blue region (infrared) was recognized in 1953 by Iosif Shklovsky as predominantly produced by synchrotron radiation that is given off by the curving of electrons moving at speeds up to half the speed of light, with the source of the curved paths being "the strong magnetic field produced by the neutron star at the center of the nebula." This is recognized as fact, regardless of the basic reality that a magnetic field is not possible without the flow of electric currents, and the further fact that neutron star, being electrically neutral, is by its nature not an electric conductor, and considering further that neutrons, outside an atomic environment, decay within minutes into protons by beta decay, and the resulting protons would repel each other whereby the so-called star would dissolve into plasma. Evidently the consensus assumption is that whatever miracles are needed for the script to be performed will somehow happen no matter what. And of course, the script is dictated by what one can see and by the supreme doctrine that gravity is the only force in the cosmos. 

Since the pulsar is pulsing, and the fast rotation of a super-mass is the only possible answer to explain the pulses on a mechanistic platform without electricity in space, whatever miracle is needed must simply happen. And a great miracle is indeed required. Imagine a 30 km wide flywheel in space rotating at 1,800 rpm. Not the strongest space age material, nor super gravity, or anything material known in the universe, can keep such a flywheel intact. Some pulsars pulsate over 700 times per second. Does it mean the emitting super-star is rotating at 42,000 rpm?

Of course, another possibility, one not considered by consensus opinion, is that, as with modern lighthouses, electrical oscillations make the pulsar blink. Super-dense matter and super-fast rotation aren’t needed. The x-ray structure—the jets and rings and sharp boundaries of the diocotron instability around the periphery—are common characteristics of plasma discharges, as is the strong magnetic field, the origin of which consensus opinion neglects to explain. Externally driven electrical circuits provide a unified and coherent explanation that is consistent with electromagnetic theory and laboratory investigations. It’s an explanation that doesn’t require exceptions, circular reasoning, or a consensus of opinion.
By Mel Acheson

When electrical oscillations are causing the rapid flicker of pulsars, their regular frequency is not mechanically generated, but by the capacitive, resistive and inductive electrical environment around the star. Compacted matter and extreme rotation are not necessary.
By Stephen Smith

The plasmoid

Encircling the Sun's equator is a ring current forming a doughnut-shaped plasmoid. It is visible in UV light and is a source of stored electromagnetic energy. Occasionally the plasmoid discharges directly to lower levels of the Sun, punching a hole, that we call a sunspot, through the photosphere. A sunspot group can be compared to regional lightning on Earth. Scientists were surprised when they discovered 'awesome plasma hurricanes' just beneath a sunspot. Electric discharges in a plasma naturally drive such rotation.... Sometimes the slow discharge that forms a sunspot may trigger a stellar lightning flash, resulting in a more sudden and powerful release of stored electrical energy. An x-ray flash is the signature of such lightning. That arc may result in a CME. The corona often dims as power is withdrawn from the solar plasmoid.
See: THE SUN — Our Variable Star 


NASA - Chandra image of the Crab 

The central star of the Crab Nebula has a plasmoid surrounding its plasma-current axis. At the Crab the entire plasmoid can be seen undergoing spontaneous rhythmic pulsation happening right across the entire plasmoid, light-years distant from each other, like a beating heart that is several light years wide. Such a phenomenon is impossible to be caused from a point source projected outward. Light cannot move as fast. The phenomenon that we see is therefore a pulsating phenomenon that is dynamically happening across the entire structure in the form of an internal electric resonance. If the ring structure around the star was the termination shock of out flowing 'winds' one would see radial waves. But this doesn't happen. Changes are happening across the entire structure. Electrically this is possible when the entire structure is affected by changes in the electric field. Electric fields have a universal effect, and like gravity, have no speed limit.

Experimental verification

 


Experiment exploring the nature of plasma discharges

Note: The center of the Crab is similar to the result of the Peratt experiment of a high-power electric discharge. The resulting filament dispersion pattern, is seen reflected at the center of the grab, and is also reflected in the large current pattern of Supernova 1987A, confirming both structures to be plasma-electric discharge phenomena, and not gravity originated explosions.

Visual verification in the ancient sky

For over three decades Anthony Peratt, a leading authority on plasma phenomena, concentrated his laboratory research on the unstable formations that develop in high-energy electrical discharge. He recorded the evolution of these configurations through dozens of phases. Some of the most elaborate discharge forms are now called “Peratt Instabilities” because he was the first to document them.

But Peratt’s most recent work has taken him in a new direction, and the results offer a remarkable link between plasma science and things once seen in the heavens.  In September, 2000, in response to communication with David Talbott, Peratt became intrigued by the striking similarity of ancient rock art to the discharge formations he had documented.  Suddenly he was seeing, carved on stone by the tens of thousands, the very forms he had observed in the laboratory. The correlation was so precise--down to the finest details--that it could not be accidental. The artists were recording heaven-spanning discharge formations above them.

For more, including examples of the ancient rock art, see: Plasma Formations in the Ancient Sky
A book full of examples images of plasma physics appearing in ancient art
  Related videos Symbols of an Alien Sky

 

The Pulsar

Within the box of consensus where the strongest force in the Universe is banned from consideration, the pulsar is a miracles upon miracles. 1. It starts with an exploding star. 2. The star sheds its energy and the remaining mass becomes 100,000 times smaller and collapses by gravity into a dense clump of particles that miraculously become neutrons, and remain neutrons without beta decay. 3. The clump begins to spin. 4. While Sun spins at a rate of 1 revolution in 27 days, in the case of the Crab Nebula the neutron clump of 30 km in diameter spins at a rate of 1,800 revolutions a minute. 5. The clump is so strong that it survives the immense centrifugal force, which only a major miracle can achieve. 6. The clump radiates a magnetic field without electric currents flowing in it. And so on, miracle after miracle.

Would a child be impressed? Yes, one who believes in fairy tales would. But a child that lives outside the box would say that a pulsar is simple. One might say that it plays with one every week that local swimming pool. It would refer to the dump bucket.

The dump bucket principle

The dump bucket is often a cone shaped bucket that pivots on a horizontal rod attached to a pole. The pivot is placed near the mid-point of the bucket so that the bucket points upwards in its rest position. A water spout is attached to the pole that delivers a steady stream of water into the bucket. At the bucket fills, it remains stable in the upright position, being bottom heavy. But as the bucket fills further, gradually, to the very top, it becomes top heavy. At a point it becomes unstable and flips over. All the water in it gets dumped onto the kids below, who are waiting for the big splash. Naturally, once the bucket has dumped its charge, it reverts back to its natural bottom heavy state, turns upright again, and receives another charge, and process repeats itself. It typically takes a couple of minutes to charge the bucket with a new load of water, and a fraction of a second to discharge it all. That's a pulsar a kid might say. It produces a big splash of water in pulses every two minutes. If the faucet is turned up full, the pulses might occur every half a minute. In some water parks the bucket is large. It holds a charge of 400 gallons that discharged with a great splash every 20 minutes.

And astrophysical pulsar does the same with electric. The water spout, in this case, is one of the countless filaments of Birkeland currents that the star attracts with its its gravity and its electric and magnetic fields. Near the star, at a certain level of density, the attracted plasma currents form a double layer that separates the attracted electric particles by polarity, causing a charge separation. The double layer acts like a capacitor that can accumulate large amounts of electric energy, but which has nevertheless a storage limit. When it becomes overstressed with too much electric energy flowing into it, the separation barrier becomes bridged with a short circuit discharge event. In the case of the water bucket, it dumps its entire charge when it flips over. In the case of a double layer plasma discharge, a strong discharge event can drain the entire build-up electric energy in a immensely powerful plasma-electric lightning burst. On our Sun, such discharge events are local and create isolated sunspots. In other cases the discharge events may be planet wide. The double layer is being continuously charged, and when it becomes overloaded, it short circuits and dumps its energy in hugely energetic bursts, and the rebuilds itself. In the Grab Nebula this happens 30 times a second. The length of the interval sometimes varies, depending on conditions. And best of all, no miracles are needed to accomplish that. The plasmoid surrounding pulsar star in the Crab Nebula pulses in a similar manner, though extended over much longer periods.

The Sun is a pulsar

We are told that stars are self-consuming thermonuclear engines that have sufficient fuel (hydrogen) to maintain a steady output for millions or billions of years. However, while the Sun's visible light output varies by only tenths of a percent, its energy in UV and X-rays varies by a factor of 20! 


X-ray images of the Sun captured 4 months apart between 1991 and 1995 by the Yohkoh spacecraft
The sequence corresponds with sunspot activity from high (1991) to low (1995) following the sunspot cycle

In short, the Sun is an eleven-year pulsar when see in UV and X-ray light. In this case, the pulsing resonance of plasma currents occurs in the surrounding space. With the solar heliosphere being 100 AU (the distance from the Sun to the Earth) wide, and the solar wind currents dominating heliosphere, an 11-year resonance cycle is conceivable.

By the same principle the entire Milky Way Galaxy is conceivable as a 100,000 year pulsar, with the hot pulses being the interglacial periods, such as the one we are presently in, which is ending.


Continue: to explore Solar Cycles


 

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 Rolf Witzsche, author of books and novels on Christian Science, politics, science, and, love, and economics

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