perplexing mystery? Oh, is it?
The Crab Nebula corresponds to
a supernova recorded by Chinese astronomers and Arab astronomers in 1054 AD.
It was first observed in 1731 by John Bevis, and independently rediscovered in 1758 by Charles Messier. The Earl of Rosse observed
it at Birr Castle in the 1840s, and referred to the object as the Crab Nebula because a drawing he made of it looked like a
located at a distance of about 6,500 light-years (2 kpc) from Earth and has a diameter of 11 ly (3.4 pc).
It expands at a rate of about 1,500 kilometers per second. The amount of matter contained in the Crab Nebula's filaments
is estimated to be 4.6 ± 1.8 solar masses.
heart of the Crab
The heart of the mystery
of Crab Nebula lays deep inside the giant nebula envelope, far beyond what the senses
can behold. It can be seen only in x-ray 'light.'
NASA - Chandra x-ray telescope - The inside of the Crab Nebula seen in
X-ray and UV
at the center of the nebula
lay two faint
is deemed to be responsible for the existence of the nebula,
which has been identified as
the Crab Pulsar, a neutron star (or spinning ball of neutrons), 28–30 km
across, which emits pulses of radiation from gamma rays to radio waves with a spin rate of 30.2 times per second.
Theoretical models of supernova explosions suggest that the star that
exploded to produce the Crab Nebula must have had a mass of between 9 and 11
The region around the star was found to be a strong source of radio waves in
1949, and X-rays in 1963, and was identified as one of the brightest objects in the sky in gamma rays in
1967. Like all isolated pulsars, its period is slowing very gradually. Occasionally, its rotational period shows sharp changes, known as 'glitches', which are believed to be caused by a sudden realignment inside the neutron star. The energy released as the pulsar slows down is
enormous. It powers the emission of the synchrotron radiation of the Crab Nebula, which has a total luminosity about 75,000 times greater than that of the
The pulsar's extreme energy output creates an unusually dynamic region at the
center of the Crab Nebula. While most astronomical objects evolve so slowly that changes are visible only over timescales of many years, the inner parts of the Crab show changes over timescales of only a few
days. The most dynamic feature in the inner part of the nebula is the point where the pulsar's equatorial wind slams into the bulk of the nebula, forming a shock front. The shape and position of this feature shifts rapidly, with the equatorial wind appearing as a series of wisp-like features that steepen, brighten, then fade as they move away from the pulsar to well out into the main body of the nebula.
In reference to all of the above, see: The Crab Nebula
in the box of consensus 'science'
high-resolution picture of the Crab Nebula above (upper image), taken by the
Very Large Telescope (VLT), shows the filamentation produced by magnetic
fields and electric currents. This occurs as material races away from the
nebula's core at half the speed of light. According to NASA this occurs at a
"higher speed than expected from a free explosion." And so
it should. Acceleration of particles to extremely high speed (1,500 km/sec) is a trademark
of electrical activity. No other force than the electromagnetic force is
known to exist with the power to achieve this feat of acceleration,
extending over vast distances.
lower photograph taken by the Chandra X-Ray Telescope, we see the internal
dynamics of the Crab Nebula. It reveals a structure that is typical of the intensely
energetic phenomena that have been observed for decades in laboratory experiments with
electrical discharges in plasma. That these dynamics are revealed by
x-rays is significant, because x-ray activity always accompanies high-energy
electrical interactions. The internal polar configuration is of particular
interest. A torus or wheel-like structure revolves around an axial
column--presenting what some have called a "doughnut on a stick".
Polar columns or jets (as we see them above) are typical and expected in intense plasma
discussion of the Crab Nebula, NASA spokesmen refer to "a scintillating
halo, and an intense knot of emission dancing, sprite-like, above the
pulsar's pole". Though gravitational theories never envisioned
the polar "jets", "haloes", and "knots" of the
Crab Nebula, we can now recognize these as prime examples of electrical
forces in the universe. (see: Sep 16, 2004 Crab
paradox inside the consensus box where everything is deemed to be caused by gravity
begins with the known fact that gravity is a weak force that can generate
only a dribble of energy, while we see floods of energy throughout the
Universe . The consensus among astronomers is boxed by the notion that the
energies of the universe can only come from gravitational mechanisms,
because, after all, that's all there is. If mass is equivalent to energy,
and the force of gravity activates it, than the floods of energy that we see
in the cosmos require enormities of mass, driven by gravity.
the consensus is that magnitude of mass is equivalent to amount of matter,
many of the floods of energy require more matter than can fit into the
observed sizes of their sources. Consensus opinion takes recourse in
boosting densities: by ignoring all that is known empirically and much that
is known theoretically about the compression of matter. The consensus
opinion is that however much matter is needed can be crammed into the
available volume. This means for the Crab Nebula that twice the mass of our
Sun has been compressed into a ball only 30 km wide.
Crab by the Spitzer Space Telescope
deep inside the blue haze is the above structure with pulsar star at the
center. The diffuse blue region (infrared) was recognized in 1953 by Iosif Shklovsky
as predominantly produced by synchrotron radiation that is given off by the curving of electrons moving at speeds up to half the speed of
light, with the source of the curved paths being "the strong magnetic field produced by
the neutron star at the center of the nebula." This is recognized as
fact, regardless of the basic reality that a magnetic field is not possible
without the flow of electric currents, and the further fact that neutron
star, being electrically neutral, is by its nature not an electric
conductor, and considering further that neutrons, outside an atomic
environment, decay within minutes into protons by beta decay, and the
resulting protons would repel each other whereby the so-called star would
dissolve into plasma. Evidently the consensus assumption is that whatever
miracles are needed for the script to be performed will somehow happen no
matter what. And of course, the script is dictated by what one can see and
by the supreme doctrine that gravity is the only force in the cosmos.
the pulsar is pulsing, and the fast rotation of a super-mass is the only
possible answer to explain the pulses on a mechanistic platform without
electricity in space, whatever miracle is needed must simply happen. And a
great miracle is indeed required. Imagine a 30 km wide flywheel in space
rotating at 1,800 rpm. Not the strongest space age material, nor super
gravity, or anything material known in the universe, can keep such a
flywheel intact. Some pulsars pulsate over 700 times per second. Does it
mean the emitting
super-star is rotating at 42,000 rpm?
course, another possibility, one not considered by consensus opinion, is
that, as with modern lighthouses, electrical oscillations make the pulsar
blink. Super-dense matter and super-fast rotation aren’t needed. The
x-ray structure—the jets and rings and sharp boundaries of the diocotron
instability around the periphery—are common characteristics of plasma
discharges, as is the strong magnetic field, the origin of which consensus
opinion neglects to explain. Externally driven electrical circuits provide
a unified and coherent explanation that is consistent with electromagnetic
theory and laboratory investigations. It’s an explanation that doesn’t
require exceptions, circular reasoning, or a consensus of opinion.
oscillations are causing the rapid flicker of pulsars, their regular
frequency is not mechanically generated, but by the capacitive, resistive
and inductive electrical environment around the star. Compacted matter and
extreme rotation are not necessary.
the Sun's equator is a ring current forming a doughnut-shaped plasmoid. It
is visible in UV light and is a source of stored electromagnetic energy.
Occasionally the plasmoid discharges directly to lower levels of the Sun,
punching a hole, that we call a sunspot, through the photosphere. A sunspot
group can be compared to regional lightning on Earth. Scientists were
surprised when they discovered 'awesome plasma hurricanes' just beneath a
sunspot. Electric discharges in a plasma naturally drive such rotation....
Sometimes the slow discharge that forms a sunspot may trigger a stellar
lightning flash, resulting in a more sudden and powerful release of stored
electrical energy. An x-ray flash is the signature of such lightning. That
arc may result in a CME. The corona often dims as power is withdrawn from
the solar plasmoid.
SUN — Our Variable Star
NASA - Chandra image
of the Crab
star of the Crab Nebula has a plasmoid surrounding its plasma-current axis. At
the Crab the entire plasmoid can be seen undergoing spontaneous rhythmic
pulsation happening right across the entire plasmoid, light-years distant from
each other, like a beating heart that is several light years wide. Such a
phenomenon is impossible to be caused from a point source projected outward.
Light cannot move as fast. The phenomenon that we see is therefore a pulsating
phenomenon that is dynamically happening across the entire structure in the form
of an internal electric resonance. If the ring structure around the star was the
termination shock of out flowing 'winds' one would see radial waves. But this
doesn't happen. Changes are happening across the entire structure. Electrically
this is possible when the entire structure is affected by changes in the
electric field. Electric fields have a universal effect, and like gravity, have
no speed limit.
exploring the nature of plasma discharges
center of the Crab is similar to the result of the Peratt experiment of a
high-power electric discharge. The resulting filament dispersion pattern, is
seen reflected at the center of the grab, and is also reflected in the large
current pattern of Supernova 1987A, confirming both structures to be
plasma-electric discharge phenomena, and not gravity originated explosions.
verification in the ancient sky
over three decades Anthony Peratt, a leading authority on plasma
phenomena, concentrated his laboratory research on the unstable
formations that develop in high-energy electrical discharge. He recorded
the evolution of these configurations through dozens of phases. Some of
the most elaborate discharge forms are now called “Peratt
Instabilities” because he was the first to document them.
Peratt’s most recent work has taken him in a new direction, and the
results offer a remarkable link between plasma science and things once
seen in the heavens. In September, 2000, in response to
communication with David Talbott, Peratt became intrigued by the
striking similarity of ancient rock art to the discharge formations he
had documented. Suddenly he was seeing, carved on stone by the
tens of thousands, the very forms he had observed in the laboratory. The
correlation was so precise--down to the finest details--that it could
not be accidental. The artists were recording heaven-spanning discharge
formations above them.
more, including examples of the ancient rock art, see: Plasma
Formations in the Ancient Sky
A book full of examples images of plasma physics appearing
in ancient art
Related videos Symbols of an Alien Sky
the box of consensus where the strongest force in the Universe is banned
from consideration, the pulsar is a miracles upon miracles. 1. It starts
with an exploding star. 2. The star sheds its energy and the remaining mass
becomes 100,000 times smaller and collapses by gravity into a dense clump of
particles that miraculously become neutrons, and remain neutrons without
beta decay. 3. The clump begins to spin. 4. While Sun spins at a rate of 1
revolution in 27 days, in the case of the Crab Nebula the neutron clump of
30 km in diameter spins at a rate of 1,800 revolutions a minute. 5. The
clump is so strong that it survives the immense centrifugal force, which
only a major miracle can achieve. 6. The clump radiates a magnetic field
without electric currents flowing in it. And so on, miracle after miracle.
child be impressed? Yes, one who believes in fairy tales would. But a child
that lives outside the box would say that a pulsar is simple. One might say
that it plays with one every week that local swimming pool. It would refer
to the dump bucket.
dump bucket principle
bucket is often a cone shaped bucket that pivots on a horizontal rod
attached to a pole. The pivot is placed near the mid-point of the bucket so
that the bucket points upwards in its rest position. A water spout is attached
to the pole that delivers a steady stream of water into the bucket. At the
bucket fills, it remains stable in the upright position, being bottom heavy.
But as the bucket fills further, gradually, to the very top, it becomes top
heavy. At a point it becomes unstable and flips over. All the water in it
gets dumped onto the kids below, who are waiting for the big splash.
Naturally, once the bucket has dumped its charge, it reverts back to its
natural bottom heavy state, turns upright again, and receives another
charge, and process repeats itself. It typically takes a couple of minutes
to charge the bucket with a new load of water, and a fraction of a second to
discharge it all. That's a pulsar a kid might say. It produces a big splash
of water in pulses every two minutes. If the faucet is turned up full, the
pulses might occur every half a minute. In some water parks the bucket is
large. It holds a charge of 400 gallons that discharged with a great splash
every 20 minutes.
astrophysical pulsar does the same with electric. The water spout, in this
case, is one of the countless filaments of Birkeland currents that the star
attracts with its its gravity and its electric and magnetic fields. Near the
star, at a certain level of density, the attracted plasma currents form a
double layer that separates the attracted electric particles by polarity,
causing a charge separation. The double layer acts like a capacitor that can
accumulate large amounts of electric energy, but which has nevertheless a
storage limit. When it becomes overstressed with too much electric energy
flowing into it, the separation barrier becomes bridged with a short circuit
discharge event. In the case of the water bucket, it dumps its entire charge
when it flips over. In the case of a double layer plasma discharge, a strong
discharge event can drain the entire build-up electric energy in a immensely
powerful plasma-electric lightning burst. On our Sun, such discharge events
are local and create isolated sunspots. In other cases the discharge events
may be planet wide. The double layer is being continuously charged, and when
it becomes overloaded, it short circuits and dumps its energy in hugely
energetic bursts, and the rebuilds itself. In the Grab Nebula this happens
30 times a second. The length of the interval sometimes varies, depending on
conditions. And best of all, no miracles are needed to accomplish that. The
plasmoid surrounding pulsar star in the Crab Nebula pulses in a similar
manner, though extended over much longer periods.
Sun is a pulsar
told that stars are self-consuming thermonuclear engines that have
sufficient fuel (hydrogen) to maintain a steady output for millions or
billions of years. However, while the Sun's visible light output varies by
only tenths of a percent, its energy in UV and X-rays varies by a factor of
X-ray images of the Sun
captured 4 months apart between 1991 and 1995 by the Yohkoh spacecraft
corresponds with sunspot activity from high (1991) to low (1995) following the
short, the Sun is an eleven-year pulsar when see in UV and X-ray light. In
this case, the pulsing resonance of plasma currents occurs in the
surrounding space. With the solar heliosphere being 100 AU (the distance
from the Sun to the Earth) wide, and the solar wind currents dominating
heliosphere, an 11-year resonance cycle is conceivable.
same principle the entire Milky Way Galaxy is conceivable as a 100,000 year
pulsar, with the hot pulses being the interglacial periods, such as the one
we are presently in, which is ending.